13th century

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The 13th century began on January 1, 1201 and ended on 31 December 1300.

Towards the end of the century was the transition from the Middle Ages to the late Middle Ages in Europe.

Events and developments

  • Fourth to eighth crusade.
  • Downfall of the dynasty of the Hohenstaufen and following it, the German interregnum.
  • The Mongols under Genghis Khan conquered much of Asia and Eastern Europe and build a Mongol dynasty in China.
  • Marco Polo reached China and Tibet.
  • First Islamic empires rise in Southeast Asia.
  • Everlasting covenant of the Confederates (founded in Switzerland in 1291 ).
  • In Strasbourg, the first building workshop arises. Sheds are considered as precursors of the guilds.
  • Establishment of the three great mendicant order of Augustinian Hermits, Dominicans and Franciscans
  • Establishment of the Inca empire in Peru with its capital in Cusco. Legendary founder Manco Capac is.
  • Beginning of European animal processes.
  • Fourth Lateran Council
  • Second Council of Lyons
  • 1212: Children's Crusade
  • 1212: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
  • July 27, 1214: Battle of Bouvines
  • 1198-1215: German throne dispute

Personalities

  • Albertus Magnus, polymath and theologian
  • Baybars al - Bunduqdari, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria
  • Bonaventure, Franciscan, theologian, Cardinal
  • Dante Alighieri, Italian poet
  • Genghis Khan, Mongol Khan
  • Elizabeth of Thuringia, Landgrave and Holy
  • Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan Order
  • Frederick II, Holy Roman -German Emperor
  • Louis IX. , King of France
  • Meister Eckhart, scholastics and mystics
  • Robert of Sorbon, French scholar
  • Thomas Aquinas, theologian
  • Yunus Emre, a Turkish poet
  • Innocent III. , Pope
  • Honorius III. , Pope
  • Gregory IX. , Pope
  • Philip of Swabia, Holy Roman German king
  • Otto IV of Brunswick, Holy Roman German king
  • Mechthild of Hackeborn, Christian mystic

Culture

  • The Nibelungenlied is created.
  • The verse novel Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach arises in the first decade.
  • The Kudrun epic arises.
  • The book Zohar (see Kabbalah ) arises betw 1240 and in 1280.
  • Around 1230 songs and drama texts of Carmina Burana to be written down.
  • The Codex Sangallensis 857, a comprehensive German-language epics collecting handwriting, written mid-13th century.
  • The Code Medicina antiqua the Austrian National Library is created around 1250 in Sicily (Codex Vindobonensis 93).
  • In Spain, the Cantigas de Santa Maria (about: Songs for the Virgin Mary ) written down, one of the largest collections of medieval songs.
  • The coat of arms roles, collections of coats of arms, arise.
  • Praying Daniels of the prisoner, the oldest Russian epic.
  • In Jena, a man will be buried, who had been mummified after ancient Egyptian method (see links).
  • The Ebstorfer world map is the largest representation of the world in the Middle Ages.
  • Major European works of manuscript illumination as the Maciejowski Bible arise.
  • Impressive stone sculptures are created in Magdeburg, Naumburg and Bamberg Cathedral

Inventions and Discoveries

  • In Goryeo (Korea ) texts in Chinese language ( Hanmun ) are printed with interchangeable letters from metal.
  • The compass is introduced from the East. It allows the ships, now sailing to far away from the coasts.
  • In Italy, probably in Venice, end of the century invented the glasses.

Pictures of 13th century

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