X2000 is the brand name of the Swedish high-speed train operated by SJ AB X2.
- 6.1 Modernisation Programme 2014
By compared to Central Europe entirely different demographic structure in Sweden, it offered no sense to build expensive high -speed lines. The hilly and mountainous landscape of Sweden more expensive new lines even further. How would such a new route between Stockholm and Gothenburg, the two largest cities in Sweden, including rolling stock cost in the 1990s, around nine billion Swedish crowns.
Therefore, the Swedish State Railways ( SJ) decided on a railcar X2 with tilting technology, can be driven faster with the existing lines. The term X2000 is chosen as the product name of the high-speed traffic. It is in Sweden the same as the name used in Germany for ICE high-speed trains of Deutsche Bahn.
By 1989, 20 trainsets were ordered. The trains are fully air conditioned and were equipped to start using a mobile phone fixed. The planned scheduled time of maximum speed was 200 km / h but the trains were technically designed for 210 km / h. Ten of the 20 units were destined for the route Stockholm- Gothenburg, more sets should be used on the routes between Stockholm and Malmö and Stockholm Östergötland. The trains were built in the factory of ABB Västerås at a price of 100 million Swedish crowns; the development of the trains had cost until 1989, two billion crowns.
Mid-1991 has been tested technically in the network of the German Federal Railroad those offered by ABB available X - 2000 unit. The test drives were carried out on the route between Trier and Saarbrücken and in the Stuttgart area. The DB reckoned at about ten lines in Germany economically viable applications.
A X2000 trainset set with 276 km / h to a speed record for rail vehicles in Sweden. This was outbid on 26 July 2006 by a 281 km / h fast Regina trainset.
Operation beginning in 1990 and further orders
In September 1990, the company started operations on the route Stockholm- Gothenburg. The first series of 20 trains were delivered up to 1994. Today (2006 ) run the X2000 on several routes, for example from Copenhagen in Denmark to Härnösand in northern Sweden.
In early 1993, the company ordered 14 additional speed trains with one power car, two intermediate cars and a control car (order volume: 220 million D- Mark ), connected with an option for 15 more sets. Mid-1990s, some trains were amplified by a seventh intermediate cars. Today the sets operate as five - and six -car trains.
The end of 1995 ordered the SJ X2000 seven other power cars and 28 intermediate cars. The contract value was equivalent to approximately 200 million D- Mark, the delivery of the first vehicles was scheduled for July 1996. Moreover, there was an option for the delivery of six additional trains of the same type as well as different versions for the foreign market.
Norges Statsbaner borrowed the end of 1996 for a fee of the equivalent of around two million D- Mark from a set of SJ X2000. The trains came to 21 December on the route Oslo - Kristiansand to use and laid thereby the 353 km long distance in a travel time of 3 hours and 48 minutes back. Until then, the travel time was 4 hours and 24 minutes. The former plans of the NSB ago saw to use six or seven tilting trains from 1999 on the track in the regular service. Further routes were planned. The NSB used since 1999 but tilting trains NSB type 73 series in the regular service.
From the summer of 1998 X 2000 should run as the first high-speed train in the People's Republic of China. For this purpose, the manufacturer had a unit built on their own account and can ship from Gothenburg in January 1998. After three months of testing and acceptance phase of the train should run for two years between Guangzhou and Hong Kong. A return of the adapted for the Chinese railway power system train was in early 1998 as unlikely. The schedule under the name Xinshisu lasted until 2007, after which the unit was transferred to Sichuan, but not taken there because of an earthquake of 2008. 2012 the train was acquired by the SJ returned to Sweden and adapted to the X2000 series.
On 29 June 1998 an axle of a X2000 broke at Hallberg. The one with more than 100 km / h propelled train derailed not. Pending resolution of the cause of the accident the maximum speed of the trains was reduced to 160 km / hr. Just five days earlier cracks at the wheel of a X2000 had been found during a routine check. The investigation of the 70 built- in twelve trains wheels of Adtranz daughter Surahammars Bruk seven cracks were observed.
From 1 February 2000 reversed the engine head of a X2000 - the first in Sweden railway vehicle - with all-over advertising. For the first ad, six months from 1 February 2000, paid a business newspaper one million crowns.
On 19 February 2001 broke in Mjölby in a train on the way from Stockholm to Copenhagen an axis. No one was hurt; the speed limit was temporarily lowered to 160 km / hr. Through checks no further cracks were found.
In the years 2000 to 2004 seven units were operated by the private railway company Linx. This put her between Oslo, Gothenburg, Malmö and Copenhagen. Linx was a joint venture between the SJ and the Norwegian State Railways NSB. The premature end came when SJ wanted to use the trains to more profitable connections in Sweden. Another reason was a noticeable decline in passengers on these compounds, due to the low cost competition.
Speed increase and alternatives
For the Botniabanan was considered to increase the maximum speed of the drive trains to 250 km / hr. After investigations by Bombardier for if the required conversion costs in the amount of half a billion Swedish crowns had surrendered ( 53 million euros ), this project was rejected in late 2005. Instead, new, suitable for 250 km / h trainsets should be procured under the name Gröna Tåget within five years. A purchase of ICE and TGV trains was not further considered due to the comparatively generous Swedish clearance profile to avoid sacrificing comfort.
On 12 September 2010 there was an accident with one fatality when a train collided with a X2000 construction vehicle.
The train usually consists of an engine head with four to five middle and a control car. In one of the middle cars there is a train restaurant. It is possible to couple two units and to control together, so that the train has eleven cars and two power cars. The Linx trains ran at only four intermediate cars.
The five -piece units offer 261 passengers, the six divider 309 Two more courts are not for wheelchair users. The first class proportion is unusually high with two cars. Because the utilization of the non- equivalent, while in the second class, demand exceeded the offer you reduced the first - class area flexibly and without venturing structural changes up to half a car and defines the first class by the Board included in the fare of place. All passengers is a bistro with a self -service basis, which is housed each set in the middle of the carriage 4.
Early 2005 was to modernize the X2000 fleet. The trains were given a new coat of paint and a new interior. The first train was employed from February 16, 2005 in passenger service. With an unchanged number of seats as part of the redesign all the trains were equipped with Wi-Fi and provided with a new color scheme in gray ( from white - blue). There were also built amplifier to improve reception with mobile phones.
The transport of bicycles is not allowed in the X2000.
Each powered end car has four -phase asynchronous motors (3 x 380 V, 50 Hz). The control is effected by means of the GTO thyristor having a frequency of 0 Hz to 120 Hz, the maximum load is 18.5 tons.
The tilting system is dependent on the direction controlled by an accelerometer in each leading vehicle. The tilt angle depends on the velocity and radius of curvature, it is measured in each car on the bogies and adjusted hydraulically. The slope is a maximum of 6.5 degrees, the inclination changing at most four degrees per second. At speeds below 70 km / h tilting technology is not active. The technique is restricted so that a passenger sits higher or lower than another passenger in the same car on a corner seat of the car never 30 cm. The power cars themselves have no tilting. A special train driver seat with reinforced lateral support compensates for the increased lateral acceleration.
A special feature of the trains is the radial adjustability of the individual axles in each bogie. On the arc- rich tracks in Sweden can thus adjust each axis of the track. Thus the friction is considerably reduced, resulting in savings in energy consumption and less wear and tear.
In the years 2000-2001 some of the trains were converted for use in Denmark, so that the use of the Oresund connection was possible. In addition to the installation of the Danish Zugsicherungstechniken this included the conversion of the power heads to dual-system power heads, as the Danish long-distance routes are electrified with 25 kV deviation at 50 Hz. The series designation of the powerheads changed on X2K.
Its route network extends from Stockholm to northern Sweden to Falun, Östersund, Sundsvall and Härnösand, in the west to Arvika, Uddevalla and Gothenburg, in the south to Malmö, Copenhagen and Odense ( Denmark).
The train has left a noticeable impact on the SJ and the Swedish rail transport. Rising passenger numbers, coupled with lower operating expenses at the same time accelerated and more efficient operations helped the SJ to be profitable.
The X2000 also proved that innovation in rail transport is possible not only abroad, but also in Sweden. In 1991, the government began a comprehensive investment program to expand the rail network, which included a year 5 to 10 billion crowns. The program still exists today and is even expanded. A milestone was reached in the late 1990s, when the number of passengers for the first time exceeded the value of the year 1940.
Since 1990, together with some new lines were built. These include the Öresund Link, the Arlanda Airport railway, which is traversed by the X3 and the 80 km long Svealandlinie (Stockholm) - Södertälje - Eskilstuna (now traversed with X40 ).
Due to the age of the X2000 trains and the loss of two units due to accidents ( trip to the buffer stop at Malmö station on 1 January 2011, collision with crane of a construction vehicle between Norrköping and Linköping on September 13, 2010), the SJ are planning a renovation and expansion their existing fleet. To relieve the existing X2000 fleet were from August 2011 already new trains of the type X55, which operate in Sweden under the trademark SJ3000, procured. The X55 is multiple units of the type Bombardier Regina without tilting.
With the Gröna Tåget project was from 2005 to 2012 the development of concepts and technologies for environmentally friendly tilting - train at 250 km / h maximum speed, which is especially suitable for use on existing routes in cold regions studied. Thus one of the ways was to replace in the near future X2000 checked.
Modernization program in 2014
Beginning of 2014 decided the SJ trains all the X2000 series for 3.5 billion SEK (~ 400 million euros ) to modernize. Main supplier with a share of 1.4 billion SEK (~ 160 million euros ), ABB, which will share the computer, drive, and train control systems in a first step. These are still all on the state of the 1980s. The production of the components is done in Switzerland, the installation in Sweden. Later, the interior will be modernized. First retreaded trains will deliver 2015 ABB, then tests are planned. SJ expected re - entry into service between 2016 and the first quarter at the beginning of 2019. It is expected that the power consumption of trains reduced by 10% and for another 20 years left in the service.