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The first half of the century was the transition from the Early Middle Ages to the High Middle Ages in Europe.
- To 1008: The Swedish King Olof Skötkonung was baptized and promotes the establishment of the Diocese of Skara. The beginning of the lengthy Christianization of Sweden.
- 1012: Foundation of the Camaldolese Order in Camaldoli, Tuscany (Italy).
- 1019: Knut the Great was king over a North Sea empire, consisting of England and Denmark. Later, Norway and parts of Sweden were added.
- 1022: Synod of Pavia. Prohibition of the marriage of priests, married priests and impeachment decision on the incapacity to inherit the children of priests.
- 1024: Start of Salierherrschaft the Holy Roman Empire by the choice of Conrad II as King.
- 1025: Bolesław I was crowned King of Poland.
- 1037: Konrad II put the heritability of fiefs fixed by law.
- 1066: The Normans conquer England.
- 1075: Pope Gregory VII wrote the Dictatus Papae, thus the investiture controversy begins.
- 1077: The Walk to Canossa Henry was acquitted of the excommunication of the IV.
- 1085: Alfonso VI. conquered Toledo in Spain back from the Moors.
- 1086: creation of the Domesday Book. It covers land tenure in England.
- 1091: The Kingdom of Croatia became part of Hungary.
- 1095: Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade.
- William the Conqueror, King of England
- Macbeth, King of Scotland
- Tughrul Beg, the first Sultan of the Seljuks
- Basil II, Byzantine Emperor
- Alp Arslan, the Seljuk ruler
- Henry IV, German Emperor
- Pope Gregory VII ( Hildebrand )
- Khon Könchog Gyelpo, founder of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism
- Marpa Buddhist master and forefather of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism
- Milarepa, Buddhist master and forefather of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism
- Romanus IV, Byzantine Emperor
- Anselm of Canterbury, theologian and philosopher (main representative of early scholasticism )
- Malik Shah I, Sultan of the Seljuks
- Ibn Butlan, Nestorian Christian physician from Baghdad
- Knut the Great, Danish and English King
Inventions and Discoveries
- Invention of the rocket in China
- The printing press used in China since the 8th century is extended to include movable type made of wood.