11th century

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The 11th century began on January 1, 1001 and ended on 31 December 1100.

The first half of the century was the transition from the Early Middle Ages to the High Middle Ages in Europe.



  • To 1008: The Swedish King Olof Skötkonung was baptized and promotes the establishment of the Diocese of Skara. The beginning of the lengthy Christianization of Sweden.
  • 1012: Foundation of the Camaldolese Order in Camaldoli, Tuscany (Italy).
  • 1019: Knut the Great was king over a North Sea empire, consisting of England and Denmark. Later, Norway and parts of Sweden were added.
  • 1022: Synod of Pavia. Prohibition of the marriage of priests, married priests and impeachment decision on the incapacity to inherit the children of priests.
  • 1024: Start of Salierherrschaft the Holy Roman Empire by the choice of Conrad II as King.
  • 1025: Bolesław I was crowned King of Poland.
  • 1037: Konrad II put the heritability of fiefs fixed by law.
  • 1066: The Normans conquer England.
  • 1075: Pope Gregory VII wrote the Dictatus Papae, thus the investiture controversy begins.
  • 1077: The Walk to Canossa Henry was acquitted of the excommunication of the IV.
  • 1085: Alfonso VI. conquered Toledo in Spain back from the Moors.
  • 1086: creation of the Domesday Book. It covers land tenure in England.
  • 1091: The Kingdom of Croatia became part of Hungary.
  • 1095: Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade.



  • William the Conqueror, King of England
  • Macbeth, King of Scotland
  • Tughrul Beg, the first Sultan of the Seljuks
  • Basil II, Byzantine Emperor
  • Alp Arslan, the Seljuk ruler
  • Henry IV, German Emperor
  • Pope Gregory VII ( Hildebrand )
  • Khon Könchog Gyelpo, founder of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism
  • Marpa Buddhist master and forefather of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism
  • Milarepa, Buddhist master and forefather of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism
  • Romanus IV, Byzantine Emperor
  • Anselm of Canterbury, theologian and philosopher (main representative of early scholasticism )
  • Malik Shah I, Sultan of the Seljuks
  • Ibn Butlan, Nestorian Christian physician from Baghdad
  • Knut the Great, Danish and English King

Inventions and Discoveries

  • Invention of the rocket in China
  • The printing press used in China since the 8th century is extended to include movable type made ​​of wood.