50-60 ° C.
0.309 mg · kg -1 ( LD50, mouse, i.v.)
Template: Infobox chemical / molecular formula search available
Phorbol -12- myristate - 13-acetate (PMA), or alternatively 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol - 13-acetate or - tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA ) means and belongs to the group of the phorbol esters. The molecule is used in biochemical research, in order to activate the protein kinase C (PKC) as a structural analogue of the diacylglycerol. The effect of PMA is due to the structural similarity to one of the natural activators of PKC isoforms, the diacylglycerol.
PMA is an object of study in the treatment of leukemias. It has a special benefit for cancer diagnostics since it can serve as B-cell - specific mitogen in a cytogenetic test. Phorbol esters such as PMA in ELISPOT used as a positive control to verify the viability and secretion of cytokines in the cells used.
PMA was first found in a Southeast Asian plant of the genus Croton, which causes a rash on contact similar to poison ivy. Plants with higher levels of phorbol esters are problematic livestock feed mast of herbivores.