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Heads of State

Year of the Earth Rat壬子( at the beginning of the year Metal Pig辛亥)

Syria: 1803 /04 ( the year in October )

The beginning of 1492 brings the end of the Reconquista in Spain. After several months of siege, Muhammad XII. , The last Emir of Granada, the city passed to the Catholic monarchs Ferdinand II and Isabella I of Spain. Thus, the nearly 800 -year-old Muslim story ends on the Iberian Peninsula.

For the navigator Christopher Columbus, this causes the fulfillment of a dream: With the surrender of Santa Fe Ferdinand and Isabella resolve their promise and give him three ships, resources and extensive privileges to search the sea route to India on a western route. A few months later the results with the landing on Guanahani to the discovery of America. Regardless of that this trip neither the first nor the only successful crossing of the Atlantic and America had long since been settled, the crossing of Columbus is widely recognized that most famous of the Discoveries and in the science of history as the transition from medieval to modern times.

Domestically exploit the Catholic Monarchs, the energies released after the victory over the Muslims immediately to fight against another religious community: The Alhambra Decree also tens of thousands of Sephardic Jews who do not want to be forced baptisms are distributed from Spain.

  • Secured 2.1 Date of birth
  • 2.2 Exact date of birth unknown


Politics and World Affairs

Spain and the discovery voyage of Columbus

  • January 2: With the surrender of the city by Boabdil, the last Sultan of Granada, to Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, the nearly 800 -year rule of the Moors ends on the Iberian Peninsula.
  • APRIL 17: Surrender of Santa Fe
  • August 3: Christopher Columbus stands on his first trip to America in the lake.
  • October 12: Christopher Columbus reached America ( The Bahamas) and discovered this continent for Christian Europe; he is convinced that we have reached Asia.
  • October 28: Christopher Columbus on his first voyage reached the island of Cuba.
  • December 5: Christopher Columbus lands on the island of Hispaniola.
  • December 25: The Santa Maria, flagship of Christopher Columbus, is shipwrecked off the island of Hispaniola. Part of the crew remains in the timbered also with the remains of the ship La Navidad settlement.

Holy Roman Empire


  • As the fourth of the five Deccan sultanates - Bidar gains its independence from the Bahmani Sultanate.


  • Add the mint Schneeberg and the mint Zwickau first time Bart pennies be embossed.
  • The Stieglbrauerei to Salzburg is first mentioned.
  • The Hofmühl Brewery in Eichstätt ( Bavaria ) is founded.

Science and Technology


  • June 26: Antoine de Ville succeed ordered by France's King Charles VIII climbing the Mont Aiguille in the French western Alps. The first ascent of the mountain next to mountaineering equipment and ladders are used.
  • In Swabia the Kehrwoche is introduced.


The Alhambra Decree in Spain

The " Catholic Majesties " Isabella I and Ferdinand II signed on March 31, the Alhambra Decree for the expulsion of all Sephardic Jews from Spain who do not want to be forced baptized.

On July 31, the ultimatum for the expulsion of all Jews forced Stauf unwilling Spain expires. Between 80,000 and 300,000 Jewish people of Spain have to leave the house and yard. A third of them turns to Portugal, one third after Turkey, about 25,000 go to the Netherlands, as many are likely to North Africa, primarily be to Morocco, gone, the rest is split between France, Italy and Egypt. Gold and other jewelry items and money, turn to the Catholic government.


Pope Innocent VIII died on 25 July in Rome. The fact that his date of death has been correctly predicted by Girolamo Savonarola, means that this charismatic preacher who denounces the abuses of the Papal States violently, receives an even larger inflow and contributes significantly to its takeover in 1494 in Florence.

Supported by funds of Ferdinand of Aragon wins Rodrigo de Borja, a Spaniard from the Borgia family, bribe the office of Pontifex Maximus, the Pope of the Roman Church. The election of the successor of the deceased in July Innocent VIII is based on five -day conclave on August 11. Rodrigo takes the name of Alexander VI. of.

Nature and Environment

  • November 7: In Ensisheim a meteorite strikes a which causes a stir in the population of interest.


Secured birth

  • March 21: John II of simmering, Count Palatine († 1557)
  • MARCH 26: Adam Ries, German reckoning master mathematician and author of arithmetic books († 1559 )
  • September 7: Giacomo Aconcio, Italian humanist, philosopher, theologian, jurist, and engineering († 1567 )
  • SEPTEMBER 7: Michael Caelius, German Lutheran theologian and reformer († 1559 )
  • September 12: Lorenzo II de Medici, Duke of Urbino and ruler of Florence ( † 1519)

Exact date of birth unknown

  • Jörg blue skirt, a leading figure of the early Swiss Anabaptism († 1529)
  • Vittoria Colonna, Italian poet († 1547)
  • Wilhelm Nesen, German humanist and educator († 1524)


  • April 8: Lorenzo I de ' Medici, Italian politician and lord of the city of Florence (* 1449 )
  • June 7: Casimir IV, Grand Duke of Lithuania since 1440 and since 1447 until his death King of Poland (* 1427)