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Heads of State

Year of the Fire Rooster丁酉( at the beginning of the year Fire Monkey丙申)

Syria: 1848/49 ( the year in October )

  • 3.1 More death unknown


Politics and World Affairs


  • January 6: Alessandro de ' Medici in Florence, assassinated by his cousin Lorenzino distantly related de' Medici. Cosimo I de ' Medici becomes the new lord of Florence and Duke of Tuscany.
  • FEBRUARY 23: Charles I justified today Infantería de Marina Spain.
  • With an upgraded since the Tunis expedition fleet under Admiral commissioned by Sultan Suleiman I Khair ad-Din Barbarossa, the Ottomans conquer many Aegean islands like Santorini, Naxos, Kasos, Tinos and Karpathos, and make the most of the other tribute. The Republic of Venice under the Doge Andrea Gritti and the Christian Federal fleet under Admiral Andrea Doria have the Ottoman supremacy nothing to oppose.


  • February: The Spanish conquistador Juan de Ayolas founded in the estuary of the Río Blanco in the Paraguay River, the Fort of Candelaria. The expedition penetrates in the sequence before further inland to the area of the Gran Chaco.
  • May 3: The conquistador Alfonso de Heredia founded on the territory of the Indian tribe of Malibues with their support on behalf of the Governor of Cartagena, Juan de Santa Cruz, the city of Santa Cruz de mompox that develops into a major city in the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
  • May 15: The conquistador Juan de Salazar y Espinosa de los Monteros is based on the orders of Pedro de Mendoza on the Río Paraguay Fort Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción, the capital of Paraguay from developing.
  • December 8: Capitán Alonso de Cáceres founded on behalf of the Adelantado, Governor of Yucatán, Francisco de Montejo, the city of Santa Maria de Comayagua in Honduras today.
  • The Portuguese first colonize the region of present-day Recife.


  • In Saxon Penig the establishment of a paper mill, paper mill today Penig.

Science and Technology

  • Paracelsus completed his major work Astronomia Magna.
  • King John III. does Coimbra single university city in Portugal. The University of Lisbon is dissolved.


  • Parmigianino: Portrait of a young woman called Anthea, 1535-1537
  • Book printing and papermaking come by Johannes Soter the Bergisch land; up to 1996 still existent paper mill and printing publishes important works of spiritual science.


  • John VIII of Maltitz is Bishop of Meissen after the death of John VII of Schleinitz.

Sublimis Deus

In the proclaimed on May 29, Bull Sublimis Deus prohibits Pope Paul III. the enslavement of Indians and all other people. The pope repeated compromising his position, he has a month earlier, represented in the letter Veritas ipsa of 2 May to Cardinal Juan de Tavera, archbishop of Toledo. Paul III. explains that the Indians rational beings with a soul are, and disclaims any representation to the contrary back as diabolical. He condemns their humiliation slaves as null and void, and that applies to all peoples, for as yet undiscovered. He gives them the right to liberty and property, and concludes with a call for their Christianization. The bull has a strong influence on the dispute of Valladolid, and the amounts expressed in their principles are ultimately the official position of Charles V, although this is often ignored by the settlers and conquistadors.

Corner Bible

The Ingolstadt theologian John Eck brings out a German translation of the New and Old Testament. The Corner Bible has emerged as a Catholic response to the Luther Bible of 1534 and is therefore considered one of the correction Bibles. He does not write in a East Middle Saxon, but in a very Bavarian High German, similar to Maximilian's chancellery. This corner is bordered not only theologically but also linguistically by Martin Luther. This work was commissioned by the Bavarian Duke Wilhelm IV, bears the title of Old and New Testament, used for the text in the hailigen churches, by Johan doctor. Corners, with assiduity, interpreted to hohteutsch. The part of the New Testament is based in the corner on the translation of the humanist Hieronymus Emser in 1527 and is based in total on the Latin Vulgate rather than the Hebrew and Greek original texts as with Luther. Is dedicated to his Bible to the Cardinal and Archbishop of Salzburg, Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg.


  • 04 March: Longqing, emperor of China in the Ming Dynasty 1567-1572 († 1572)
  • MARCH 17: Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese military leader and politician († 1598 )
  • May 20: Girolamo Fabrizio (also: Hieronymus Fabricius ), anatomist and founder of modern embryology († 1619)
  • 03 June: John Manuel of Portugal, Portuguese throne († January 2, 1554 )
  • JULY 25: Johann Eglof of Knöringen, Bishop of Augsburg ( † 1575)
  • August 31: Arnold Mercator, cartographer († 1587 )
  • 000September: Charles de Montmorency, duc de Damville, 1596-1612 Admiral of France ( † 1612 )
  • 06 November: Elisabeth Magdalene, Margravine of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brunswick- Lüneburg ( † 1594 )
  • 05 December: Ashikaga Yoshiaki, Japanese shogun († 1597)
  • December 21: John III. (Sweden ), King of Sweden from 1568 to 1592 († 1592)
  • Christoph Clavius ​​, German mathematician and astronomer († 1612 )
  • Philip Galle, Dutch draftsman and engraver († 1612 )


  • January 06: Alessandro de Medici, Duca della città di Penna and Duke of Florence ( * 1510)
  • January 06: Baldassare Peruzzi, Italian architect and painter (* 1481 )
  • February 08: Otto von Pack, German conspirators
  • February 08: Jerome Ämiliani, Italian humanist and saint (* 1481 )
  • FEBRUARY 21: Girolamo Accoramboni, Italian physician and philosopher (* 1469 )
  • March 9: Quirin op the Veld by Willich, Auxiliary Bishop of Köln
  • July 7: Madeleine de Valois, Princess of France and Queen of Scotland (* 1520)
  • August 14: Peter SWYN, a leader of the peasant republic Dithmar (* 1480)

More death unknown

  • Hans Cranach, German painter (c. 1513)
  • Lorenzo di Credi Florentine painter and sculptor (* 1459 )
  • Thomas Fitzgerald, tenth Earl of Kildare (* 1513)
  • Pedro de Mendoza, Spanish conquerors (* 1487 )
  • Thomas Murner, German writer and theologian (* 1475 )
  • Henry Percy, sixth Earl of Northumberland (* 1502)
  • Heinrich Brabender, sculptor (c. 1467 )