1975 Algiers Agreement
The Algiers Agreement was on March 6, 1975 between the then Iraqi Vice President Saddam Hussein and the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to mediation by Algerian President Houari Boumedienne in the Algerian capital closed contract in which the common boundary curve at the Shatt al Arab (Persian Arvand Rud called ) in mid-river and the guarantee of security have been defined along the common border. In addition, the contract included the mutual non-interference in internal affairs. On the basis of this contract have been signed several agreements on the common border in the same year.
It is true that Iran benefited by the laying of the border from the eastern Iranian riverfront in the middle of the river from the agreement, but the main beneficiary of the contract was Iraq because Iran withdrew all military and financial support after the conclusion of the contract of intra- Iraqi Kurdish opposition. As a result of the Agreement, the Kurds were forcibly relocated on both sides of the border into the interior. After the fall of the Shah and the seizure of power Ayatollah Khomeini during the Islamic Revolution of 1979 and the resignation of Iraqi President Marshal Ahmed Hassan al -Bakr and subsequent rise of Saddam Hussein by the Vice President for Iraqi President on 16 July 1979, the ideological differences between Iran were as Islamic theocracy and Iraq with its secular Ba'ath government increasingly larger.
In the spring of 1980, the Iraqi- Iranian relations deteriorated dramatically as the Shiite organization " Party of Islamic reputation " (so-called Dawa Party ) undertook attacks on facilities of the Ba'ath Party and a failed assassination attempt on the former Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz. The Iraqi Ba'ath government in Baghdad accused the Islamic government in Tehran prior to control these attacks and subsequently deported 40,000 followers of the Shiite Dawa Party from the interior to the Iranian border.
On September 17, 1980, the termination of the Agreement of Algiers by the Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, who had the contract itself closed as the then Vice President five and a half years earlier was. In a speech to the Iraqi National Assembly, he tore the Algiers Agreements and declared it null and void. Five days later, on September 22, 1980 began by the attack of Iraq on Iran with nine divisions on a 600- km-wide front of the first Gulf War.