3D camera

3D cameras are camera systems that allow the pictorial representation of distances of a whole scene. This is in contrast to conventional analogue or digital cameras, which represent grayscale or color values ​​of the objects to temperature cameras ( representation of surface temperatures ) or false color cameras (such as infrared cameras, Spektralkameras ).

3D cameras are used on the one hand, to give the viewer a spatial impression (especially stereo systems). On the other hand they are needed in the art for the measurement or control / automation. Different systems can achieve a 3D image of their surroundings:

  • Stereo cameras: Here, the environment is taken simultaneously with two cameras. The distance between the camera lenses usually corresponds to the human eye relief. The resulting image pair is the eyes of the beholder presented separately, creating a spatial impression. The images can also be processed in a computer and thus the distance to be measured objects.
  • Triangulation in which a light source is a defined pattern maps to the object. A camera captures this pattern from a different angle and calculated from the distortion of the distance.
  • TOF cameras which close on run-time measurement of the light on the distance back. An example of a ToF camera is the PMD sensor.
  • Interferometry: These systems operate with interference between a measurement and object beams. Due to the very short wavelengths are using these systems, the smallest distance resolutions achievable.
  • Light field cameras: These cameras will be at the expense of resolution using microlens arrays in addition to the brightness of a pixel and the light direction of the rays, which lead to a pixel is recorded. From these data, an image can then refocus not only in retrospect but also compute a depth map. This has, for example, the company Raytrix GmbH commercialized.