3rd century

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The 3rd century began on January 1, 201 and ended on 31 December 300 It is the era of late antiquity.

Era / period

  • Starting from Alexandria experienced Greek philosophy and mathematics a renaissance ( Neoplatonism ).
  • The pyramids of the Maya in Central America conduct an era of monumental buildings.
  • The Roman Empire ruled in the years 235-285 of the so-called " soldier emperors ". These were usually proclaimed as part of usurpations of the legions of the emperor and reigned often only a few months. This phase of Roman history is also referred to as the time of the kingdom crisis of the 3rd century.
  • Christianity asserts itself despite external Widernisse and the inner struggle for its compatibility with the private property.
  • In Persia, the Sassanid Empire is founded.
  • In Japan, the separation of church and state ( secularism ) is carried out.
  • China is divided 220-280: These the Three Kingdoms period is terminated by Emperor Wu of Jin.

Events / developments

  • Since 231 there is a repeat violent fights between the Sassanids and Rome (see Roman- Persian Wars).
  • The territories east of the Rhine, north of Lake Constance and west of the Iller (in the region of Baden-Württemberg in approximately its present-day borders ) fall of the Roman Empire permanently to the Germanic tribes ( Limes case).
  • 262 Goths destroy the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
  • 267 plunder Germanic Heruli Athens.


  • Cao Cao ( 155-220 ), pioneer of the Wei dynasty
  • Cyprian, North African church father and bishop of Carthage
  • Plotinus, Greek philosopher from Alexandria; is regarded as the chief representative of Neoplatonism
  • Paul of Samosata, Doctor of the Church from the Near East, Bishop of Antioch and counselor of Queen Zenobia of Palmyra; was excommunicated as heretics of the Christian Church
  • Sima Yi ( 179-251 ), pioneer of the Jin Dynasty
  • Sima Yan ( 236-290 ), unifier of China
  • Aurelian, Roman Emperor 270-275
  • Diophantus of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician
  • Longinus, Greek philosopher and linguist Syrian origin
  • Shapur I, King of Persia ( Sassanid )
  • Zenobia, Empress of Palmyra and the Roman Orient
  • Mani, founder of Persian religion of Manichaeism
  • Pappus, Greek mathematician in Alexandria
  • Greek philosopher Celsus ( Platonist ), oldest known polemic against Christianity "True doctrine."
  • Origen, Christian theologian, was commissioned to write a script against Celsus.
  • Porphyry, philosopher ( Neoplatonist ) from the Near East
  • Probus, Roman Emperor 276-282
  • Diocletian, Roman Emperor 284-305
  • Pamphilus of Caesarea, priest and doctor of the Church from Phoenicia; was tortured, imprisoned and beheaded as a Christian
  • Anthony the Great, Antonius Abbas or Anthony the Hermit, Egyptian monk, ascetic and hermit
  • Arius, a Christian presbyter from Alexandria. According to him the doctrine of Arianism is named
  • Lactantius, a native of the province of Africa priest, orator and doctor of the Church
  • Called Eusebius of Caesarea, Bishop and Doctor of the Church as the father of church history
  • Iamblichus, Greek philosopher from Chalcis (Syria )
  • Bhasa, Indian poet, pioneer of classical Indian drama
  • Donatus, North African religious philosopher and priest
  • Constantine I, also known as Constantine the Great, was Roman Emperor 306-337
  • Fasir, North African preacher and freedom fighter
  • Liu Hui, Chinese mathematician

Inventions and Discoveries

  • 216: Emperor Caracalla completed the ten years earlier construction of the eponymous largest public baths of Rome, the Baths of Caracalla.
  • To 230: Claudius Aelianus describes the hazards arising from the electric ray " numbing effect " ( electricity).
  • To 250: In China, first iron suspension bridges are built.
  • To 260: In Scandinavia are skates with iron runners in use.
  • 284: In Alexandria the Diocletian era is introduced which starts with the throne of the Roman Emperor Diocletian and was later adopted by the Christian Copts.
  • To 290: Pappus of Alexandria developed later known as Guldinsche rules formulas to calculate volume and surface of solids of revolution.