An 8 mm film is a cine film format that is used for motion pictures and subminiature film in photography.
Double - 8 film
The double - 8 film is 16 mm wide and perforated twice. The camera is a half of the film is initially exposed, and later return the second half. After development, the film is cut into two 8 mm wide film strips ( split ). This filmstrip then correspond to the standard "NORMAL -8 " film (N -8), International " Regular 8" ( R -8). Doppel8 (or N-8/R-8 ) is not compatible with Super 8, Regular 8 film ( = R-8 or " Doppel8 " / " Double8 " / D-8) has wider perforation, the somewhat narrower each other and on the height of the image are stroke ( the definition of an image to the next) and a smaller field of view than super-8 film. The double - 8 film are said to stand a better image than the Super - 8 film, as the transport mechanism in the camera first, and second, larger on each side sprocket holes to secure detection has. The double -8 film was delivered on a daylight spool (Super - 8 film is in cassettes). The double - 8 film was introduced in 1932 and the installation of a Magnettonspur is possible. Today, double -8 films have only minor importance. The relatedness of the D-8/N-8/R-8 for 16- mm film shows itself in the fact that there are exactly twice as many images are on a meter N-8/R-8/D-8 as on a 16 mm film. When D-8/N-8/R-8 the frame rates 16 B / s and 24 B / s were common. The projectors came with a spool capacity of 120 meters (about 30 minutes at 16 frames / sec ). N -8 film reels have a mounting hole as standard 1/4 " reels of tape. An N -8 film reel do not fit on a Super-8 movie projector. In the reverse case, a small plastic adapter may be used to reduce the larger mounting hole of a super-8 N-8 on the film spool size.
Super - 8 films
Super-8 films have a width of 8 mm and are perforated on one side. Per picture, there is a perforation, which is located at the height of the center at the edge. The field size is 5.36 mm × 4.01 mm (width × height without frame line ). On a feet of film there are 236 images. In a film cassette are 15.24 m film. In a few camera models (eg Nizo 6080, Beaulieu 6008 ), however, could also be 60 - m- film cassettes are docked. The usual speeds is where Super 8 film recorded / played, 18 B / s and 24 B / s The premastered Super - 8 films (eg Mickey Mouse cartoons and feature films in a 20 -minute abridged version, etc.) were recorded exclusively with 24 B / s. Two magnetic soundtracks are possible ( for stereo setting or Duoplay - setting ). Copies could temporarily be made with optical sound, but there are few sound film projectors that are able to play back optical sound. Most super 8 sound film projectors play from only the magnetic sound. It was presented Super - 8 film in 1964 at Photokina; since 1965 it is available in stores.
Silent film projectors for Super 8 had often only short coil arms, so that only small coils with a capacity of 120 m ( about 26 minutes at 18 B / s) were used. Sound film projectors usually had at least 180 m coils capacity, some 240 m. A handful of super-8 projectors waited with 360 m on coil capacity, a single model ( Beaulieu 708 EL) with 700 - m- coils and another ( Fumeo Classic S8) with 720- m coils. In addition, there were special coil holder that supposedly each projector, the use of 750 - m- coil enabled, such as the giant CSC 750 X. The developed films can be " wet glue" Filmkitt, mounted with special transparent adhesive tape or a special.
Single-8 films also have a width of 8 mm and thus the same format as Super 8, but other cartridges are used, it - rewind allow - in contrast to the much more common Super 8 cartridge. In addition, the substrate is not tri- acetate (as in the other films ), but mostly polyester. Polyester films (about 90 microns ) are thinner than Acetatfilme (about 135 microns ), thereby fits on an ordinary super-8 film reel about 50 % more single -8 material. However, polyester films can only be "dry" glued ( with transparent adhesive tape ). However, there are also single- 8 films with a carrier layer of tri- acetate, such as the black -and-white reversal film 'Retro -X "or the color reversal film" Cinevia ". In these cases, however, fit only about 12 m film in a 15- m tape. In addition, a conventional pressure plate used. The format is since 1965 in the trade.
Double Super - 8 films
Double Super-8 films have a width of 16 mm and are double perforated. They work like conventional double - 8 films, but have super 8 perforations. There are two different coil systems (2 x 30 m coils in the "West " cameras, 2 × 7.5 - 2 × 10 m or coils in the "East" ) cameras. An interesting possibility (as well as Single-8 ) to circumvent the technical drawbacks of Super 8 cartridge. The format is since the late 1960s in commerce.
- ISO 486, double 8 crude film mass
- ISO 1780 Dimensions of Super 8 cartridge
- ISO 2966 Dimensions of the double - super-8 raw film
- ISO 3641, Dimensions of Single-8 cartridge