The series 81-717/714 is currently the most widely used series of subway cars in Russia and several other successor states of the Soviet Union. The from the production of the Metro Wagon mash plant in Mytischtschi in Moscow and Yegorov - works (including Wagon -mash factory called ) originating in Saint Petersburg trains have appeared in the Moscow Metro, the Metro St Petersburg, but also in Budapest, Prague, Tbilisi and in Warsaw in daily use.
The first models in the series 81-717/714 were developed in the mid 1970s. The need for a new model was found to be that time of ever-increasing numbers of passengers of the Moscow Metro and addition of several major construction projects in the metro before the Olympic Games, the 1980 should take place in the Soviet capital. The in the 70s still mass produced and until then mainly coming to the emergency vehicles of the series E, but some older models were - mainly because of their relatively low capacity - increasingly for use on particularly heavily used lines less suitable. The development of a new series now took the Metro Wagon mash - work. 1976 six cars were eventually produced and subsequently tested for over a year in operation. Shortly afterwards, the first car of the new series for use on the ring line were delivered. The series production of the series 81-717/714 was recorded in Metro Wagon mash plant in 1978; In addition, the test car in the Leningrad Yegorov - engineering works have been supplied for research purposes, has been whereafter there in 1980 also started the series production of the trains.
In contrast to the older classes of the Capacity of the car 81-717/714 was increased by all means cars were now manufactured without unnecessary space beanspruchende cabs. A completely new design was developed for the forehead front of the end car - among other things by rearranging the lights and the centered mounting the manufacturer's logo - as well as the interior of the car, which was brighter to some particular through first use of fluorescent lamps than in predecessors of the case had. There have also been a number of technical improvements, including at the traction equipment, the brakes and in the interior of the cab. Instead, the switch control of the series E have the car of the series 81-717/714 through a thyristor, the driving engine power increased from 68 to 110 kW.
Shortly after the start of series production in Moscow that the series 81-717/714 the first subway car series were the Nomernyje how the cars are unofficially called until today ( the simply as " number cars " to understand nickname derives from the fact the former Soviet Union was, whose name is a number instead of the current practice, a letter was) shipped in considerable quantities in Moscow Krasnaya Presnya Depot, which operates the ring line. It was also in 1979 newly opened line 8, or more precisely their custody Nowogirejewo, fully stocked with features of the new series. With the start of serial production in Leningrad Soon after this there, to replace the old fleet by the 81-717/714er car. Already around 1980 developed a modified Metro Wagon mash for export or 81-714.1 81-717.1 model, which was then shipped to Prague.
For all models and modifications of the series is to distinguish between the types of cars 717 and 714: The former are the end car with a driver's cab, while it is the middle car in the 714er cars at the site of the cab six additional seating as well as a few have standing.
With the exception of some export models manufactured by the start of series production until the end of the 1980s Nomernyje trains met the developed model in 1976. For export, however, modifications of the revised series 81-717/714 been developed since 1980 slightly. Thus, the variant 81-717.1/714.1 was delivered for the Prague Metro, which was mainly a different paint than the original model and was also aligned with the typical European standard gauge out. The approximately one year later developed for the Budapest Metro and modified in a similar manner model that also since the early 1980s is used there, got the name 81-717.2/714.2. The Budapest cars have because of the swept by top power rail different from the other vehicles pantograph.
The first major development of the series took place in 1987 particular often inadequate fire resistance of the vehicles was criticized after it in April of the same year to a -. Had come car fire in a tunnel of the Moscow Metro - outgoing, fortunately without serious injury. A little later, the Metro Wagon mash - work before the modified model 81-717.5/714.5, which received a number of improvements in fire safety and technical equipment. In 1988 both Metro Wagon Masch and the Leningrad Yegorov works on the production of the new model. This model became the basis of some later-developed export modifications: in the early 1990s emerged in the Metro Wagon mash - works, the models for which at that time still under construction subways Warsaw and Sofia, the names 81-717.3/714.3 respectively 81-717.4 / 714.4 received. They were delivered with the opening of this metro systems in the years 1995 and 1998.
Finally, in 1993 developed Metro Wagon Masch further improved modification of the series. This was designated 81-717.5M/714.5M and included a number of technical innovations, so among other more powerful engines. This model was further developed in the next few years: for example, the modifications fall of 2001 in the interior by novel, vandalismusbeständigere seats. The 81-717.5M/714.5M-Züge have been shipped to Moscow and to the Kiev Metro. On the basis of 81-717.5M/714.5M also the model 81-717.2М/714.2М, which was delivered to Metro Budapest since the mid-1990s, and in 2002 a successor model on behalf of the Baku Metro was built. Since the late 90s the Moscow and St. Petersburg Metro are the cars produced up to that point of the series successively subjected to a modernization in the order in which they are placed on the technical state of the model 81-717.5M/714.5M.
Present and future of the series
The subway series vehicles 81-717/714 and their modifications are present on eight of the twelve lines of the Moscow Metro in use. In Russia and other CIS they are used in all local subway systems with the exception of Metro Kazan, outside the former Soviet Union in Budapest, Prague, Sofia and Warsaw.
In 2006, the Moscow Metro issued to the Metro Wagon mash - works a contract for the development of a new model of the series, which is expected to have 81-717.6K/714.6K the name. This has been tested since the end of 2007 and offers numerous innovations in the exterior and interior. Among other things, the cabs were given a new exterior design with electronic destination indicators like the manufactured since 2003 81-740/741 series. The interior was comfortable among other things, improved sound insulation. The new model will in future replace the Moscow subway cars of 81-717/714er-Baureihe on multiple lines gradually. First, it was tested on the Samoskworezkaja line, the fleet is still partially built out in the 1980s wagons 81-717/714er-Reihe. Currently there is a train on the Kalininskaja Line in regular use.