9th century

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The 9th century began on January 1 and ending December 31, 801 900


In Europe this century is part of the Early Middle Ages (ca. 500-1050 ). There began with the medieval warm period, a period mild climate. After the death of Charlemagne (814) the Frankish Empire also included under his successor, Louis the Pious large parts of Europe. After his death the empire from 843 was divided among his descendants repeatedly in new parts until the Treaty of Ribemont (880 ) the division into a western France, an eastern kingdom and later the Kingdom of Italy was. The disputes over the Carolingian rule in the Frankish Empire, which began during the reign of Louis the Pious, led to an increasing weakening of the Carolingian rulers in favor of local nobles.

The Bulgarian Empire expanded throughout the century, particularly in the Balkans. Gradually with the introduction of Christianity by the Eastern rite in the second half of the century disappeared the differences between Proto-Bulgarians and Slavs.

The Byzantine Empire suffered at the beginning of the century, more territorial losses. Thus, the islands of Crete and Sicily were conquered by Muslim troops. Also the Byzantine Iconoclastic Controversy lived briefly again. In the 840 years, the threat of the empire, however, increasingly reassured and it experienced a relatively peaceful time with times of economic and cultural prosperity.

The caliphate under the Abbasids experienced at the beginning of the century, a flower and a science which fell back increasingly on Greek and Roman sources. At the same time numerous kingdoms from the Abbasid Caliphate split off from this period, and it started from the second quarter of the century, an increasing decline of the power of the dynasty.

On the Korean peninsula, the kingdom of Silla lost power in favor of local warlords. Finally, with the elimination of a part of the empire in the year 892 began the end of the Silla Kingdom.

In Southeast Asia, built and enlarged the Khmer their kingdom (also called the Kingdom of Angkor ). The Khmer developed an effective agriculture by means of irrigation canals and water reservoirs. The food surpluses that allowed the king Indravarman I. at the end of the century to begin an extensive building program in Angkor, which was continued by his successors.

In America, the decline of the Mayan empire began. In the lowlands individual Maya centers were abandoned and a rapid population decline began. Among other explanations climate change in combination with environmental degradation are discussed as causes for the decline.


  • 802: Start of the historical Khmer Empire in Angkor (Cambodia) by combining previously independent kingdoms
  • 814: Charlemagne and Louis the Pious dies his successor.
  • 814: Inauguration of the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet, Samye.
  • 843: The grandson of Charlemagne ( Louis the German, Charles the Bald and Lothar I ) divide the Frankish Empire in the Treaty of Verdun.
  • 858: In Japan, the rule of the Fujiwara family, who controlled the imperial family and thus the actual government begins.
  • 875: The Swede, Gardar Svavarsson discovered by systematic search and Iceland explored and colonized the island.
  • 880: The Treaty of Ribemont the division of the Frankish empire has reached its conclusion.


  • Charles the Great (c. 748, † 814), King of the Franks and Lombards, Roman emperor
  • Al - Ma ʾ mun (* 786, † 833 ), Abbasid caliph of the Arab- Islamic Empire
  • Photios the Great, Patriarch of Byzantine
  • Pope John Anglicus XX or Pope Joan
  • Nicholas I, Roman Catholic Pope
  • Alfred the Great ( * 848 or 849, † 899), from 871 King of the West Saxons ( Wessex ) and from about 886 the Anglo-Saxons

Inventions and Discoveries

  • 900: First windmill