Republicanism (Latin -French- neulateinisch: from res publica ( " public thing " or " community ") is an emerged from the theory of the state towards the political philosophy for which the democratic will not - as in political liberalism - on an aggregation of pre-political, plural and individual interests is based, but is actively shaped in a public process on the basis of civic virtues.
Important for republicanism is the expansion of integrative capabilities of the people and of individuals by elected for a predetermined, irrevocable time at periodic intervals by the people or their representatives who govern ( legitimate ) are so that the sovereignty not only on the short process of choosing reduced (interactive democratic theory ). Politics is the space for public decisions.
The active political realist ( active citizens) seems to be an embodiment of the Enlightenment ideal of the responsible citizen as well as the Republican idea of common sense -oriented (Latin Sensus communis) Citoyens.
Republicans go from a (legal) people in the framework of legal and political order, as bearers of rights and obligations as a public authority, an association of the entire citizenry that designed initially to the general will and later by generally well- directed aspects of a general will ( Volonté générale ), who also has to take into account mental sympathy of minorities and non- participants.
Key features are the rule of the many, and the pursuit of the good of all, taking into account a protected privacy. Continuing will and freedom of expression are fundamental in republican constitutions, but are also subject to the risk that the participation of the people is not taken into account to a sufficient degree, if the rulers do not care for the welfare of all citizens, but only for one's own or that of individual minorities. However, minorities can also be viewed as a democratic side effect completely disenfranchised in republicanism. Circumcision liberal rights occurs when the majority thereby promises a benefit, such as increased safety.
When the people get acknowledged a growing say in government decisions, the ability consensus is difficult; if the laws drafting done only by specially elected, those representatives will be granted such a great power that the risk of a quasi dictatorship is given; the unbridled liberalism entails the threat of oligarchy.
Republicanism versus liberalism
Republicanism occurs in various forms and has evolved throughout history. Republicanism assumes that individuals always be a part 've willingly solid linearisation oriented and reason of certain citizens. From the side of liberalism or of representative democracy movement, the high expectations of rationality and a embeddedness of citizens in the policy is criticized on republicanism.
According to another view to republicanism and liberalism are not mutually exclusive, but rather differentiate into concise distinctive features.
Republicanism believes in the socio - moral capacities of citizens and favors the optimistic ideology of putting on citizen activity participatory, grassroots democracy. With this, citizens and elected officials agree (or interest groups, political parties, associations and government bodies ) with one another in the public interest and submit sympathetically proposals to take decidedly influence in the implementation of policy.
Political liberalism represents the Great an elite -oriented democracy idea that elected representatives, based on division of labor, the political decision formulation leave it up to the destination, as insufficient reasonably assessed experiential folk and citizens will be a genuine collective interest in a community to refine the.
Republicanism is closely related to the design of communitarianism, civil or civil society, the associative and deliberative democracy.
A continuation of political liberalism can be seen in the factual anthropological, pluralistic democratic theory, in which case the alleged republicanism in political and moral responsibility of the citizen is questioned.
History of Republicanism
Groups that promoted republicanism, developed from an opposition to monarchies (especially any form of inheritance ) and from the advocacy of civil and constitutional movement already existed sporadically prior to the implementation of the idea of republican forms of government. Finally, when states were formed after the pattern of a Republic and the people were involved in the decision process of the political community, their goals have become increasingly socialist parties on the one hand and on the other hand has been taken over mainstream parties of the center-right; both directions characterize features of the so-called modern parties that have unfolded in the modern era. Parliamentary democratic republics practice a parliamentary or a presidential. Specialties of the 20th century, the Republic of Councils ( Councils system) and the People's Republic.
Vaishali (now the Indian state of Bihar ) was the first republic in the world, which had a similar design as the later founded Greek. In antiquity, the history is anchored eg in Tacitus in their own political and ideological position, a deep-rooted republicanism and aristocracy, due to the concern for the endangered in the autocracy values of the Roman state idea. It developed mixed constitutions, which it refers to a constitution which elements of two or more other classes of mixed forms of government (eg, democracy, aristocracy, oligarchy, etc. ) and thus created a new form of government. Even in ancient times pertinent theories have been developed: for example, from Herodotus, Aristotle ( as in his polity ), Plato, Polybius, etc., but also in the recent past (see, among others, the violent part mixed constitution of Montesquieu ). Helvidius Priscus also enjoyed how his father Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus reputation for his passionate and courageous republicanism. Plato was concerned, for example, in his work prefectures ( "Laws " ) extensively in dialogue form held through targets in terms of state that takes into account state constitutions which historical models are implemented already in Argos, Messenia, Sparta, Persia and Athens to find. In democratic polis normalized city-states of ancient Greece was formed, also by Aristotle's works, the citizen who could intervene directly in elections by the political events of his state as a sovereign member of the citizenry. As the cycle of constitutions, a v. of Aristotle in the 4th century BC on the basis of the actual development in ancient Greece is called designed system of constitutional development. However, the former vote was not by people as individuals, but as a party to the demos that were based on the will of the majority. This traditional form of republicanism, however, was charged with the fatal defect that the demos only free men and patricians were counted and general equality or freedom of all the people was irrelevant.