According to Duden academicism means an " artistic self-expression and opinion, which is over-emphasized the formal and solidifies in the Dogmatic ". The term is also used as a term for the rare cars in the romance as important as soon mocked Academic Art. Also criticized by the term excessive theoretical and not practical academic behaviors and structures.
Academicism and figuratively
The term academicism goes beyond the field of painting and sculpture, who kept a strict adherence to the formal technical and aesthetic rules of the art academies. In the field of visual arts as among other architectural historicism, neo-classicism, eclecticism and Novecento are referred to, particularly in Italy was provided to the opposite of rationalism. There were also referred to as musical and literary works. Adolf Stern stated in 1882 a link between the Counter-Reformation, and an emerging academicism in the literature.
The contempt of academicism mid-19th century can also be attributed to major changes in the art market. Due to the better availability of industrially produced paints and canvases as well as the sharp rise in the number of artists in Paris in the 19th century, the gallery of the 19th century in the light of what the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu called the anti - economism of the art field, in the sidelined.
The salon as an art exhibition attracted at that time, as the technical visual mass media did not exist, hundreds of thousands of visitors. The gallery, however, remained on the sidelines. This is evidenced known group portraits in the anti- akademistischen artistic milieu of the 1860s and 1870s. On them writers such as Baudelaire and Zola can be found next to painters while but never quite dealer or gallery. They were at that time just as Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt - The most successful impressionist painters - involved in artistic portraits networks.
The academic type of artist was accordingly classified by Pierre Bourdieu, following Max Weber's typology as " priestly ", in contrast to the oriented innovation " prophetic " type, as represented him as Manet and part of the Impressionists, especially Monet and Degas. In the construction of the then Museums, which threatened enhance this priestly oriented type of painters, Bourdieu saw a more general concern at work than just the rehabilitation of such of it as " scholastic " classified art. He interpreted it as an attempt, the type of "homo Academicus ", understood as homologous to the academic painter figure, enhance the university field.
In the novel The Old Masters of the Austrian writer Thomas Bernhard, the protagonist, the art critic Reger, an imaginary museum created where all great artists, be they painters, musicians or writers, are present. Humanity had become a gigantic State from which one would have when getting ill and prevents his academicism that people could think freely.
Thomas Wegmann and Norbert Christian Wolf see academicism also given in dealing with popular culture. Pornography, comic books and horror movies were increasingly being upgraded cosmetically and assigned to the post-modern in the sense of Leslie Fiedler. In but the huge changes of popular culture are neglected since the 1960s.
Academic practice as far
The sociologist Alvin W. Gouldner criticized in the late 1960s, the academic sociology and academicism. He condemned " theorists who developed their systems with cotton in his ears, deaf to the accusing voices of social movements ".
The media researcher Michael Haller criticized the " academicism of German universities with their fear of contact with respect to the professional world ." He cites the example in a contribution to the teaching of journalism, the common practice among bachelor's degree programs that are officially intended to give an increasing professional orientation, but in fact still mourn the ideal of research orientation. In the doctrine would still knowledge operated in frontal teaching, of how the profession close only propagated claim of practical orientation and an inability to refer to the colleges. This leads to the outdated academicism in an abstract and academic and continues to -remove from the practice of cloud cuckoo land.
The television writer Armin Maiwald referred in an interview with the weekly Die Zeit on the use of the term by Karl Popper, who " kept the whole hochschwallige expression of many philosophers to the typical German academicism".
- Media Studies