Academy ( from Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια or Ἑκαδήμεια ( Akadḗmeia or Hekadḗmeia ), school of philosophy of Plato ) is a legally unprotected term and covers a wide range of publicly funded and / or private ( so-called "free" ) research, teaching, education and training institutions from.
General common than the noun Academy is the corresponding adjective academically, which refers to everything that is related to higher education, as well as the derivation of academics ( university graduate ).
- 3.1 antiquity
- 3.2 Middle Ages
- 3.3 Early Modern Times
The term derives from the location of the Academy school of philosophy of Plato (see Platonic Academy ), which was located in the grove of the Greek hero Academos in Athens. She insisted - though not consistently - until its closure by Emperor Justinian I in the year 529 ( see also founded in 1926, modern Academy of Athens ).
Academies can be divided as follows:
The first two devices are different from the universities often related and connected in that they are not, or no government schools, their focus is not directed to practical purposes, but maintain the scientific work primarily for its own sake.
In extension of the use of words for study and performance of music circles sometimes also events for public musical performance was even referred to as the Academy. The term, however, this concert has displaced.
Academies of science are learned societies for scientific or artistic research. They have no doctrine. Your work is conducted in joint meetings of their members during the research results are presented, which are then published in meeting reports or essays. These typically state- maintained self-governing bodies are divided into two or three classes, mostly a philosophical- historical class, a mathematical-scientific and sometimes a class of art and literature. The narrow technical limitation has been lifted today, so almost all disciplines are represented. The classes have about 30 to 50 per Ordinary, that is usually out of the country originating members and about 80 per corresponding, that is usually foreign members. In Austria each subsequent regular member first receives the status of the corresponding member.
Select the ordinary, almost always volunteer members from their ranks a president on time. New members are co-opted, that is, co-opted by regular members. The fields of the Academy of Sciences are usually lengthy scientific studies like the publication of dictionaries, the care of collecting publications such as the Monumenta Historica Germaniae, the Siberian flora or the Emperor of deeds, etc.
Institutions to promote scientific or artistic studies
Institutions were founded to teach a particular expertise early on. It was this example, mining academies, academies, art schools, and much more. The Mining Academy in 1775, the Mining Academy in Freiberg Mining Academy was in 1765 and the Montan College Ostrava was founded in 1716
This term there are also academies devoted to the study and performance of musical works, such as the Académie was founded in 1669 nationale de musique in Paris ( today's great opera ), the Academy of Ancient Music in London, the Academies of Music ( opera houses ) founded in 1854 in New York and in 1856 in Philadelphia, the singing ( for the first time in 1791 in Berlin), music and philharmonic academies.
Such academies operate in addition to research both the teaching on university- rata basis and are comparable with a university faculty. They often have a tendency of development to college.
Incomplete developed universities
This refers to
- Art schools, which are not connected to the university and serve primarily the training of artists. There are art schools who call themselves film academies, art schools and music academies
- Other sites of higher education (today the tertiary sector ): Philosophical and theological academies, sports academies, religious colleges, War and Military Academies, Military Medical Academies, State Medical colleges for the training of medical officers, medical training colleges, agricultural colleges, forestry academies, film academies, teacher training colleges for the purpose of teacher education, business colleges, academies, administrative and business schools, etc.
Academies on Arts Education
These are continuing and further education facilities, especially for multipliers in social or cultural professions that are worn with government support. Have Supraregional Meaning: The Academy Music & Stage GmbH, Remscheid Academy e for Cultural Education V., the Federal Academy for Musical Youth Education Trossingen, the Federal Academy for Cultural Education in Wolfenbüttel and castle Fuersteneck, Academy for professional and artistic- cultural training in the district of Fulda. Craftsmen can nationwide qualify at the Academies of Art and Design to create designs in the craft.
In addition to the facilities already mentioned, there were and are also in the military academies and in the economy, which were established taking into account very different criteria, such as knight or military academies and academies for training young people in the economy. More colleges are educational institutions in private or church-run. Although the term "academy" is not legally protected, insert the commercial register dishes and they are mostly in advisory chambers (but not always ) very high standards for the registration of this term as part of their name in the commercial register. In general, it is ensured that such facilities to meet the requirements that is stimulated by the Academy - term. Some examples of this are the TÜV Rheinland Academy, the Academy German bakery trade Weinheim, the Academy of the Architectural Association NRW GmbH, experts academy Aachen GmbH, Technische Akademie Wuppertal eV, in the arts, the Academy Music & Stage GmbH and others. As examples of one, if not necessarily misleading, yet less justified use of the word Academy the numerous summer schools were cited.
History of scientific academies
The oldest academy in the strict sense, ie scientific academy, the museum was created by Ptolemy II in Alexandria. This little in common have the free associations of scholars, thinkers and wits, which were forming in the Arab Middle East in the 2nd century of the Hegira, and partly, as the Brothers of Purity of Basra, temporarily gained a far-reaching spiritual influence.
Only as a State Institute for the Advancement of Science, the Academy was planned, which set up around the middle of the 9th century Bardas in Constantinople Opel. In the West of the name put at the Academy of scholarly circle that found its center at the court of Charlemagne in Alcuin. For the rest had here during the middle ages science and learning no refuge, with the exception of some monasteries. The Brunetto Latini founded by Academy of Fine Arts in Florence (1270 ), by King Frederick II of Sicily in Palermo in 1300 founded Society for the Care of Italian poetry, which formed in 1323 in Toulouse Académie des jeux floreux were only the maintenance of poetry dedicated.
Early Modern Times
Only with the revival of classical studies produced since the mid -15th century in Italy associations of learned men with humanistic tendency, the first in 1433, founded by Antonio Beccadelli from Palermo to Naples Academy, lifted by Laurentius Valla, and especially of Giovanni Pontano and therefore usually Academia Pontaniana called. More important however, was the Accademia Platonica, which was founded in Florence under Cosimo de ' Medici, il Vecchio / Old 1438 and Marsilio Ficino, Pico della Mirandola, Angelo Poliziano and Niccolò Machiavelli was one of its members. This company dealt with Platonic philosophy, with the refinement of the Italian language, the study of Dante and served many other clubs of this type as a pattern that had formed in all major cities in Italy during the 16th century. They broke up after the death of Lorenzo I de ' Medici in 1492 again.
In addition, is to name the Accademia antiquaria in Rome which launched by Pomponio Leto launched in 1498, was followed by Pope Pius II but for heresy and pagan ethos and disbanded in 1550. There were also the Academy of Aldus Manutius philological, founded in 1495 in Venice and took care of the new edition of ancient writers. The Accademia dell'Arte del Disegno e Compagnia founded in Florence in 1563 was dedicated to the visual arts, the Accademia della Crusca, founded in 1582 ibid cleaning and finishing of the Italian language. 1560 was already in Naples, Academia secretorum naturae established, the care of the natural sciences and was soon suppressed by the church. Her successor organizations, the Accademia de ' Lincei in Rome, founded in 1603 is one. She went several times, and was again, in 1870 divided into a pontifical and a royal part. Today she is active as Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.
With the humanistic studies, the academies also reached into other countries in Europe. So reasoned Johann Clemens von Dalberg at the request of Konrad Celtes 1490 Sodalitas Celtica or Rhenana in Worms and around the same time Konrad Celtes even the Sodalitas literaria Danubiana, which was moved in 1498 to Vienna. While the Florentine Crusca found imitators in German speaking countries of the 17th century, served the science dedicated to Italian companies of the Royal Society in London and the Karolinska Leopoldinisch - Academy ( Leopoldina ) as a model.
In France, Richelieu transformed in 1635 a private company, founded in 1630 in a national organization, the Académie française, which was later shared with its sister institutions under the umbrella organization of the Institut de France. This program, supported by the State to a great extent, dependent but also by the governments Institute has exerted a profound influence on the development of the so -called classical literary epoch of France.