Active–stative language

The active language (also: active Tripod language, active - inactive language ) is called within the relational typology of a language type of the agent ( this is " active") both transitive and intransitive sentences always brings up the same way to express and the undergoer ( this is "inactive" ) is always referred to in all sets in a different way.

This is in the languages ​​in question typically marked by two rows of Pronominalelementen on the verb, that is, there are two morphological categories Active and Inactive ( the former of which has nothing to do directly with the verbi same genus ).

This gives rise to the schema:

Languages ​​of this type can be found outside Europe, especially in indigenous American languages ​​, but also in others.

  • Examples from the Dakota ( Sioux languages):

" He beats me "

" I sing "

" I 'm sick "

In these examples show that the Dakota only the first person singular ( " I " ) on the verb marks (the 3rd person singular is not explicitly expressed ), where there is for these two different forms.

  • Another active language is, for example, the Guaraní.
  • Also in Germany (which is a Akkusativsprache ) there are structures that correspond to the essence of an active language: freezes me ( me is inactive here ) instead of intransitive I'm cold, that is, in accordance with transitive he beats me, where me is also inactive.