- Adenosine- 5'-( trihydrogendiphosphat )
- Adenosine-5'- diphosphoric acid
3333 mg · kg -1 ( LD50, mouse, ip)
Template: Infobox chemical / molecular formula search available
Adenosine diphosphate ( ADP) is a nucleotide consisting of the diphosphate of the nucleoside adenosine. It is produced during the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate ( ATP).
Adenosine having a unitary chain is analogous phosphorus adenosine monophosphate ( AMP); with a three-part phosphorus chain it is adenosine triphosphate ( ATP). ATP is of these three molecules, the highest-energy molecule - AMP the lowest energy.
The term energy rich or energy poor is actually misleading. The bonds are not strong, but rather unstable. Since all three phosphate groups are negatively charged in biological systems and crowded close together, they repel each other; comparable to a tensioned spring. The coordinated under physiological conditions, divalent magnesium ion stabilizes this voltage slightly.
In the phosphorylation of substrates by ATP, ADP produced, which can be generally formulated as follows:
The bond between the second and third phosphate of the phosphate chain is dissolved and phosphorylates the substrate. The product has a higher energy than the substrate. The low-energy ADP is phosphorylated by energy-yielding reactions in the body back to the energy-rich ATP. In all eukaryotes, these reactions take place in the mitochondria, a special organelle of the cell.