Blue Violet forest ground beetle ( Carabus problematicus )
The Adephaga Polyphaga put next to the second largest suborder of beetles ( Coleoptera) represents the group includes about 34,000 species, with three families on the ground and the remaining eight families living in the water or on the water either. This is primarily to species in which both the imagos, and the larvae are predatory. Two of the families who Aspidytidae and Meruidae were first described in 2002 and 2005 respectively. The monophyly of the suborder is undoubtedly well founded and by derived features of both the larvae and the imagoes.
The autapomorphies that the group differs from the other bugs in the Imagines the zweisegmentige, palpenartige Galea, the Mentum with rounded lateral praise, a ventral hinge at the hips ( coxae ) of the front legs, very immobile, enlarged hips of the rear legs, the fully share second Hinterleibssternit, the fused sternites on the second to fourth abdominal segment and defense glands on the pygidium. In the larvae the autapomorphies are an adaptation to the predatory lifestyle. Her head has changed forward -looking mouthparts, which is Gula ( the medial sclerite on the neck ) to a long, narrow median suture, the labrum is fused with the front plate ( clypeus ), the mandibles lack the cutting surface ( Mola ) and the Prostheca, a closed prepharyngeale tube is present and the digestion takes place extraintestinal.
Plesiomorphic features in the Imagines are the eleven-membered, threadlike sensors that mandibles lacking the Mola, the five-membered tarsi, the Propleura exposed with free Trochantin, wings ( alae ) with oblongum and four free Malpighian tubules. When the larvae are probably the four-membered probe, the six-membered legs and articulated Urogomphi.
Taxonomy and systematics
It was assumed that the Adephaga are the sister relationship to the Myxophaga and Polyphaga, the latest findings can but conclude that the Adephaga are more closely related to the Polyphaga.
The phylogenetic position within the Adephaga is not yet fully understood. One approach assumes that the aquatic living families form a monophyletic group, the Hydradephaga, which is related to the remaining families, which are among the Geadephaga. This was also confirmed by an examination of rDNA sequences of 39 taxa of the Adephaga and 13 other taxa, although the result did not provide good robust justification. Another approach assumes that the whirligig beetles ( Gyrinidae ) are in a sister relationship to other Adephaga. This is supported by a series of synapomorphies of the remaining families. Unclear also the phylogenetic position of the phalarope ( Haliplidae ), which could be demonstrated satisfactory neither on the basis of morphological features, even on the basis of molecular genetic studies. This family could be in a relationship with a sister taxon which includes the Carabidae, Rhysodidae, Trachypachidae and Dytiscoidea stand. This approach, however, is not well founded. An alternative is to assume that the phalarope are a sister group of the Dytiscoidea. The Aspidytidae are part of the Dytiscoidea and be available in a sister relationship to a taxon comprising the Dytiscidae and Hygrobiidae. The monophyly of the Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae and Carabidae could be confirmed in several studies, whereas the group of Geadephaga was considered paraphyletic. The position of the Trachypachidae is so far unclear, however, since there are studies that impute this family the basal Hydradephaga, whereas others zuzählen the Geadephaga.
The submission includes the following families:
- Whirligig beetles ( Gyrinidae ) Latreille, 1810
- Phalarope ( Haliplidae ) Aubé, 1936
- Trachypachidae C. G. Thomson, 1860
- Meruidae Spangler & Steiner, 2005
- Shore wetland beetles ( Noteridae ) C. G. Thomson, 1860
- Trout stream beetle ( Amphizoidae ) LeConte, 1853
- Aspidytidae Ribera et al., 2002
- Wetland beetles ( Hygrobiidae ) Regimbart, 1878
- Diving beetles ( Dytiscidae ) Leach, 1815
- Runzelkäfer ( Rhysodidae ) Laporte, 1840
- Ground beetles ( Carabidae ) Latreille, 1802