Administrative divisions of China
The People's Republic of China is administratively and politically divided into six main levels. They are:
- The national level refers to the understanding of the People's Republic of China to the whole, that includes Taiwan with a.
- The provincial level includes the most important and well -known outside of China administrative divisions. In provinces of China is divided for many centuries.
- The district levels has become increasingly important, especially independence since the beginning of economic reforms in 1981.
- The circular plane heard the provincial level, the oldest administrative divisions of China.
- The municipal level has been subjected to since the 80s of the 20th century, a comprehensive administrative reform, some of which still continues today. You should - as at the district level - to meet the growing demands in the context of economic reforms in local decision-making authority.
- The village level is the level of direct contact zone between the state and citizens and therefore of major importance for the enforcement of domestic requirements.
While the two highest and the two lowest of these six levels are represented at any place in China, lacks the district, at others the county level in some places. Thus, the district level, for example, in the centrally-administered cities completely, in the Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, in Hainan province and in other provinces isolated directly subordinated to the provincial level. In contrast, lacks in some prefecture-level cities ( Sansha, Zhongshan, Jiayuguan ) the county level, ie the community level is directly responsible to the district level. Since autumn 2011, there is at least one case ( Xialu in Huangshi ), in which the county level dissolved the municipal level and the village level has directly subordinated. Whether this is an isolated incident or a trend announces management restructure at least in the districts, can not yet be said.
- 2.1 Provincial
- 2.2 District level
- 2.3 county level
- 2.4 community level
- 2.5 village level
Administrative divisions at the provincial level are:
- The 23 provinces (from the viewpoint of the People's Republic including Taiwan). Most provinces exist within its borders since the Ming Dynasty.
- The four administered municipalities.
- The two special administrative regions. These are provided in the Constitution since 1982, but one country, two systems have been set up for the return of Hong Kong and Macao only under the principle.
- The five autonomous regions. These were set up after the establishment of the PRC for five large national minorities in their traditional settlement areas.
List of Provinces
The provinces are each arranged alphabetically. Among the references of this article, there are links to other sorts. The area figures are shown in square kilometers. The population figures are the results of the census of 2010.
Since its foundation in 1949, the People's Republic of China Taiwan regarded as its 23rd province. However, the Republic of China controls the Taiwan Province, the circle Jinmen and a municipality of the district Lianjiang, Fujian Province. The Republic of China also claimed the entire area of the People's Republic of China, including Tibet, the " Outer Mongolia " ( the modern state of Mongolia), Urianhai (now the Republic of Tuva (Russia) ), and other areas beyond the present borders of China. This claim was abandoned by President Lee Teng- hui in 1991; However, this was not ratified by the National Assembly of the Republic of China. 1999, the outgoing president marked the two- China theory, which was followed by the successor government further. Even President Chen Shui Bian stuck to this line, which he manifested by the policy of five noes. The current President of the Republic of China, Ma Ying -jeou, however, rejects Taiwan independence and operates a policy of rapprochement with the People's Republic, without compromising the independence of Taiwan in question. In Taiwan, printed maps provincial boundaries often provide so is how they came out in 1949 and thus disregard the provincial structure as it was built by the People's Republic of China since 1949.
List of the Autonomous Areas
List of Government immediacy cities
The term " government immediately " means that these cities - are directly subordinate to the central government of China - as provinces.
List of Special Management Zones
Hierarchy of administrative units according to data from the People's Republic of China
(As of 31 December 2012 ) Below the provincial level, there are no data from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan included. The following data are already aware of the prefecture-level city, founded on July 24, 2012 Sansha.
34 administrative units:
- 23 provinces (省, Sheng, with Taiwan);
- Five autonomous regions (自治区/自治区, zizhiqu );
- Four direct-controlled cities (直辖市/直辖市, zhíxiáshì );
- Two special administrative regions (特区/特区, tequ ).
333 administrative units, of which
- 286 County-level cities (地 级 市/地 级 市, dìjíshì ), including 15 sub- provincial cities (Chinese副 省级 城市, Pinyin fù shengji Chengshi ). The administrative area of County-level cities includes both the urban city area and the surrounding Greater Region. For this reason, under them next city districts and counties and county -level cities.
- 30 autonomous districts (自治州, zìzhìzhōu ).
- 14 administrative districts (地区/地区, Diqu ).
- Three frets (also called " leagues "; Mongolian ᠠ ᠶ ᠢ ᠮ ᠠ ᠭ / ayimaγ, Chinese盟, Meng ); Frets are available only in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
2852 ( 7) administrative units
40 446 ( 3) administrative units
The administrative units at the community level contact in urban areas from residential communities (社区/社区, shèqū ), in rural areas from villages (村, CUN) together. In addition, in parts of Inner Mongolia, especially in the marked by the grazing livestock grasslands, the Gaqaa (嘎查, Gacha ), " villages " of pastoralists.
In terms of political representation and power, however, the village level is of no great significance, organization of very large. The implementation of the adopted policy at higher levels, the distribution of mail, the census ( every ten years ) would be without the well organized village level, the clearly defined boundaries ( such as the higher administrative units) and each has a responsible head, not possible. Political representation of the residential communities are the " neighborhood committees ", like as " neighborhood committees " (居民委员会/居民委员会, Jumin wěiyuánhùi ) denotes that the villages of the " village committees " (村民 委员会/村民 委员会cūnmín, wěiyuánhùi ).
An accurate number of administrative units shall be indicated at the village level not currently possible as this is constantly changing through the ongoing administrative reform in China.
- From 1616 ( Qing Dynasty ) until 1907: Shengjing ( = Southern Manchuria )
- 1907-1929: Fengtian
- February 5, 1929 to March 1, 1932: Liaoning
- March 1, 1932 to August 18, 1945: Fengtian ( Manchukuo regime)
- Since 1945: Liaoning