This article discusses the grammar of Afrikaans, the native language of the Boers and parts of the "colored" population group in South Africa and Namibia (for the distinction between the concepts of color and black see Demographics of South Africa ).
- 3.1 increase
There are in Afrikaans is no difference between the infinitive and the present tense of the verb. The verb forms are the same for all people and Numbers. Only two verbs have irregular present tense forms: ( be ) wees and He ( have ):
There is only one past tense, the perfect tense. This is formed with the auxiliary verb He and the prefix ge -, which precedes the infinitive.
In verbs with prefixes ver -, be -, ont and forth eliminates the ge -:
In verbs with prefixes other is pushed the ge - between the prefix and the stem.
At exactly eight verbs there are in addition to perfect yet Präteritumform:
The future tense is regularly formed with the auxiliary verb gaan (with intentions ) and sal (with uncontrollable events ) and the infinitive:
The conditional is regularly formed with the past tense of the auxiliary verb sal and the infinitive:
The affirmative imperative corresponds to the infinitive, both in the Du- form as well as in which you shape.
The negated imperative is by inserting moenie ... never formed (similar to the English do not ).
In the present tense the passive is by word 'will' ge infinitive formed in Perfectly is ge infinitive:
In the written language here a pluperfect is even possible:
The past participle passive As already mentioned, formed by ge - as a prefix to the infinitive depends ( only exception: He - gehad ).
The present participle is formed by one end attaches to the infinitive. Here are the spelling rules must be observed:
These forms are used only as adjectives:
For the adverbial use of doubling the infinitive:
Afrikaans knows no grammatical gender. There is only one definite article (s) for singular and plural (see the):
The indefinite article is ' n, similar to the English or to a.
The most common plural ending is -e:
Here similar spelling rules apply as for the formation of the present participle:
When a single consonant stands by aa, ee, oo, or uu at the end of a word, this double vowels are only written separately:
A single consonant at the end of the word is doubled when it simple a, e, o, or u precedes:
Nouns that end in the singular on long vowel - d or- g, this usually lose:
A - f at the end of words after a long vowel to -w:
Some nouns form their plural in-s. This includes all diminutives:
A few nouns form the plural with - or first -ere:
There are no cases. The genitive is formed by the noun se (similar to the English - Geniniv s ) stalking:
Adjectives in attributive position go always ahead of the noun. You will then be mostly a -e appended Using the same spelling rules as in the plural form of the noun:
Please also note:
Adjectives to single vowel g depend - te (exception is the ending- ig ):
Adjectives to single vowel -f, a -e hang on, that is f - ww:
In predicative position the adjective remains unchanged.
In the comparative of the adjective him - he is appended, taking into account the same spelling rules as in the predicative form of the adjective. Adjectives in-r - depend on the adjectives in -ig and - lik not double the final consonant. In superlative always - ste is appended, a possible -t at the end falls away:
Words with three or more syllables, usually with prefix be increased as follows:
In the personal pronouns, a distinction between subject pronouns and object pronouns. The possessive pronouns precede the noun and remain unchanged.
Is negated with the word 'never' not '.
A special feature of Afrikaans is the double negative. This rule states that in a negated sentence in each case, the last word must never be.