The psychoanalytic concept of " deferred action " emerges in the course of Freud's text: Freud used the familiar Adjektivadverb later, he stresses often; gradually the noun appears Nachträglichkeit. The term has a mental makeover of past experiences and memories, which is given a new meaning. In " Emma's case " (which is in the second chapter to read " the hysterical psychopathology " of Freud's draft), it affects the " double trauma ". It is a psychoanalytic view of time and causality, which is no longer linear.


In several publications Gerhard Dahl has examined that behind the term deferred action one of the most important concepts of Sigmund Freud hides, which curiously has hardly been appreciated in Germany. Because without deferred action, a neologism Freud, the effectiveness of psychoanalysis can be neither understood nor explained. Strachey's English translation as " deferred action ," which has found its way into the Standard Edition ( 1953ff ) and thus spread worldwide, could only give a one-sided, purely metapsychological -economic understanding of the concept in terms of a subsequent abreaction what Freud did not had meant. This exclusively linear deterministic connotation has led to misunderstanding and criticism, the consequences of today finds its expression in the debate about the importance of external reality for mental development on the one hand, and the importance of the inner world on the other side. In fact, Freud's Nachträglichkeits - term still includes a second, declining time vector, which is discussed as " après-coup " particularly in French literature. This term refers not only Nachträglichkeit a simple postponement of past real events on the present, where they can be " vented "; but it also takes a downward effect on the meaning of a hermeneutic search for meaning into their own: from the present to the past.

The reception history of this particular concept is also a history of difficulties in scaling metapsychological concepts in different psychoanalytic cultures. Neither translations, neither the Anglo-Saxon deferred action is French après-coup, meets the full meaning of the German term. There are each distinguishable aspects to express their meaning is interpreted differently. In one case the deferred action an interpretation subsequently reconstructed empirical facts infantile experiences, in the hope of being able to explain the presence of psychotic symptoms € matic from the past causally; in the other case an après-coup interpretation appears subsequently give meaning, to understand them as search, präsymbolisch -affective past from the present. Thus, with the translations of the term his two time directions as Freud had in mind was actually separated from each other, which for the further development of psychoanalytic theory - the separation of ego psychology ( Hartmann, Kohut, Kernberg, etc. ) and an object relations theory ( Melanie Klein, Bion, Steiner, etc.) - has not been without consequences.

The term is noticed in the 1950s by Jacques Lacan and translated into French as the " après-coup ", in relation to the French " return to Freud " (1953, " Rome's report ").

The contribution of Jean Laplanche to geforschten term as "the ex post facto in the" après-coup " " is important, and " something else " as Lacan's French concept of " après -coup " s: the deferred action is perhaps the key concept of Jean Laplanche Théorie de la séduction généralisée ( theory of generalized seduction ), or by its corresponding theory of "translation" [ of mental life ], which means a consistent development of Freud's letter 52/112 ( to Fliess ).