Dammarabaum ( Agathis dammara ), illustration
The Kauri trees ( Agathis ), also Kaurifichten or Kaurikiefern called, are a genus of the family (Araucariaceae ).
Kauri trees are evergreen, very large trees. Under a spherical crown they have strong stems. Young plants have a conical shape. The bark is smooth and gray to reddish. The branches grow horizontally or older specimens they also show irregular upward. When the branches fall off, they leave round scars on the trunk. The buds are spherical with overlapping scales.
The seedlings have two lanceolate cotyledons ( cotyledons ).
Leaves on young trees are larger and shaped differently than on mature trees. The leaves are opposite or alternate or spirally arranged on the branch. The leaves on adult trees are oval to linear shaped, flat, broad, leathery and thick with many parallel nerves and a short stalk. Initially, the leaves are reddish and later dark green when they fall off, they leave a significant scar.
They are mostly monoecious getrenntgeschlechtig ( monoecious ). The male cones are cylindrical and have at the base rounded scales. Female cones are usually formed on short branches, they are roundish oval with many wide oval cone scales and need from pollination to maturity of two years. The oval seeds have two ( sometimes irregularly shaped ) wing.
They are only in the Pacific region of the Peninsula Malaysia to New Zealand, including the Philippines, New Guinea, Melanesia and Australia, is home. They have a spread of 10 ° 30 'N to 38 ° S and from 96 ° E to 180 ° E. All types except Agathis australis are located only in the tropics. They colonize moist tropical rain forests and semi-evergreen monsoon forests, which have several months of dry season. They grow at all altitude levels from almost sea level to 2500 meters. In the plane they are on very different soils, from sandy soils over limestone soils and volcanic soils to siliceous soils. Mostly they are the largest trees of a site, but on unfavorable sites they can also form a lower floor of a forest.
The genus Agathis was first published in 1807 by Richard Anthony Salisbury in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 8, pp. 311. Type species is Agathis loranthifolia Salisb .. Synonyms for Agathis Salisb. are Dammara ( Rumph. ) Lam. and Salisburyodendron A.V.Bobrov et Melikyan.
The genus Kauri trees ( Agathis ) is divided into three sections with about 21 species:
- Section Agathis: With 13 kinds: Agathis atropurpurea B.Hyland: The home is Queensland in Australia.
- Agathis borneensis Warblers. The home is the western Malaysia.
- Agathis corbassonii de foliage. Home is New Caledonia.
- Dammarabaum ( Agathis dammara ( Lamb. ) Rich & A.Rich. . ): The home is Bindang, East Malaysia.
- Agathis flavescens Ridl. The home is Borneo.
- Agathis kinabaluensis de foliage. The home is Borneo.
- Agathis lanceolata Warblers. The home is New Caledonia.
- Agathis lenticula de foliage. The home is Borneo.
- Agathis microstachya JFBailey & CTWhite: The home is Queensland in Australia.
- Agathis montana de Laub. The home is New Caledonia.
- Agathis orbicula de foliage. The home is Borneo.
- Resinous Kaurifichte ( Agathis philippinensis Warblers. ): The home is Philippines, Sulawesi.
- Agathis spathulata de foliage. Home is New Guinea.
- Section Rostrata: With three kinds: New Zealand Kauri tree ( Agathis australis (D. Don ) Lindl. ): The home is New Zealand's North Island.
- Agathis endertii Meijer Drees: The home is Borneo.
- Agathis ovata ( Vieill. ) Warblers. The home is New Caledonia.
- Section Prismatobracteatae: With five types Agathis labillardieri Warblers. The home is New Guinea.
- Agathis moorei ( Lindl. ) mast. The home is New Caledonia.
- Queensland Kaurifichte ( Agathis robusta ( C.Moore ex F.Muell ) FMBailey. ): The home is Queensland in Australia; New Guinea.
- Agathis silbae de foliage. The home is Vanuatu.
- Agathis macrophylla ( Lindl. ) mast. ( Syn: A. obtusa ( Lindl. ) Mast, A. vitiensis ( Seem. ) Bentham & Hooker f. ): The home is Fiji, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu. They thrive in altitudes between 200 and 900 meters.
- Christopher J. Earle, 2010: Information on the genus at The Gymnosperm Database. ( Section systematics and description)
- Liguo Fu, Nan Li & Robert R. Mill: Araucariaceae in the Flora of China, Volume 4, 1999, p 10: Agathis - Online. ( Description section )
- Walter Erhardt et al: The big walleye. Encyclopedia of plant names. Volume 2 Eugen Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart, 2008. ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7