The Aghlabids ( Banu al - Aghlab, Arabic بنو الأغلب, DMG Banū al - Aġlab, including: Arabic الأغالبة al - Aghāliba, DMG Al- Aġāliba ) were an Arab dynasty that ruled in Ifriqiya 800-909.
To the anarchy in the province of Ifriqiya ( Tunisia) to the fall of the Muhallabiten counteract towards the end of the 8th century, the Caliph Harun ar - appointed Rashid ibn al- Ibrahim I. Aghlab hereditary emir ( 800-812 ). Its territory comprised the eastern Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania. Although he ruled de facto independent, but the supremacy of the Abbasids was always recognized by his successors.
As a residence, the palace city of al - Abbasiyya was founded outside of Kairouan. This is also to escape the opposition of the Maliki jurists and theologians who the Aghlabid emirs an ungodly lifestyle accused. They also rejected the unequal treatment of Muslim Berber. To ensure the power to the outside and the inside border fortresses ( Ribat ) were applied inter alia in Sousse and Monastir.
Under Ziyadat Allah I ( 817-838 ), there was a serious crisis than the 824 Arab troops rebelled in Tunis. The uprising was only 836 suppressed with the help of the Berbers. In order to keep the troubled Arab troops under control began Aghlabids 827 with the conquest of Byzantine Sicily under Asad ibn al - Furat. The conquest was slow, and only 902 were the last Byzantine vertices are occupied. From Sicily, large parts of Italy were pillaged by raids in the subsequent period. 846 was an attack on Rome, which led to the looting of the city and the destruction of St. Peter's Basilica. Only in the 10th century, the Muslims were reduced and vergedrängt from Italy again - the Aghlabids increasingly lost control of the Arab forces in Sicily and in Italy.
The Aghlabidenreich reached its peak under Abu Ibrahim Ahmad ( 856-863 ). Ifriqiya was a major economic power due to its thriving agriculture. Taken over by the Romans irrigation systems were developed further. The kingdom became a hub of trade between the Islamic countries as well as Italy and Byzantium, where especially the slave trade was very profitable. Kairouan was the Aghlabids important center of science in the Maghreb. Especially scholars of theology and law, as well as poets gathered in the city.
The decline of the dynasty began under Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ( 875-902 ). Thus, control of Calabria in Byzantium were lost, 882 had repelled an attack of the Tulunids from Egypt and revolts of the Berbers are deposited in costly battles. In addition, since the movement of the Shiite Fatimid 893 began under the Kutama Berbers by the mission of Abu Abd Allah al- ʿ i ski spread. This resulted in 909 and the overthrow of the Aghlabids cause.
The importance of Aghlabids lies in the introduction of a development to statehood Tunisia. In addition, they put the orthodox Sunni Islam of the Maliki school of law in Ifriqiya by and largely supplanted the Kharijites from this part of the Maghreb.
- I. Ibrahim ibn al - Aghlab ( 800-812 )
- ' Abdallah ibn Ibrahim I., Abu' l-' Abbas ( 812-817 )
- Ziyadat Allah ibn Ibrahim I. I., Abu Muhammad ( 817-838 )
- Al - Ibrahim ibn Aghlab I., Abu ' Iqal ( 838-841 )
- I. Muhammad ibn al - Aghlab, Abu ' l-' Abbas ( 841-856 )
- Ahmad ibn Muhammad I., Abu Ibrahim ( 856-863 )
- Ziyadat Allah ibn Muhammad II I. (863)
- Muhammad II ibn Ahmad, Abu ' Abdallah Abu ' l- Gharaniq ( 863-875 )
- Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad, Abu Ishaq ( 875-902 )
- ' Abdallah ibn Ibrahim II II, Abu' l-' Abbas ( 902-903 )
- Ziyadat Allah III. ibn ' Abdallah II, Abu Mudar ( 903-909 )