Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi

Aṭ - Tahawi Arabic أحمد بن محمد بن سلامة بن عبد الملك أبو جعفر الطحاوي Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Salama ibn Abd al -Malik Abū ʿ far Dascha, DMG Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Salama b. ʿ Abd al -Malik Abū ʿ far Ǧa aṭ - Tahawi (* 853 in the Upper Egyptian village of Taha; † 933 in Cairo ) was an Islamic legal and Hadithwissenschaftler the Hanafi school of law, effective field Egypt.


He began his studies with his maternal uncle, the scholar al - Muzani († 877), one of the most famous disciple of Muhammad ibn Idris ash- Shafi ʿ ī and narrators of the Kitāb al - Umm, the basis of the Shafi ʿ itischen legal doctrine. Despite his initial training under the influence of the doctrine of al- Shafi ʿ ī he had joined in his formative years of the Hanafi school of law in Egypt. In the year 881, he undertook a short study trip to Damascus, where he studied in the circle of the then Kadis jurisprudence. This stay portrays Ibn ʿ Asaakir in his monumental scholarly biography of Damascus and adorns them with the following episode in the tradition of an eyewitness:

" I was at Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad b. Salama aṭ - Tahawi, as a woman with a small document appeared with him, claiming that it concerns a question that was directed to him. As he looked at it and there was written: ' May God have mercy on the one who speaks a prayer for a stranger, brings together lovers and friend '. Then he folded the paper and gave it to her with the words back: 'Woman, you are mistaken, this is not the place whither they have sent you. "

Yaqut al - Hamawi al- Rumi († 1229 ), the author of the extensive geographic dictionary reported in the description of the Upper Egyptian settlement Taha on aṭ - Ṭaḥāwīs scientific career as follows:

" Aṭ - Tahawi reported: the first, in which I studied the sciences (literally chronicled ), was al - Muzani and I followed ( thus ) the doctrine of al- Shafi ʿ ī - may God be pleased to have him. A few years later came Aḥmad ibn Abī ʿ Imraan as judges of Egypt to us and I joined his teaching on (This has taught him according to the legal doctrine of Kufenser ). and gave to my previous school of thought. Al - Muzani Then I appeared in a dream and said to me: ' But Abū ʿ Ǧa far! I have yet concluded an alliance with you! '

In another episode, the adh - Dhahabi († 1348 ) says in his scholarly biography, is also reported tensions between aṭ - Tahawi and his teacher al - Muzani:

"He ( aṭ - Tahawi ) was Shafi ʿ it and studied with Abū Ibrāhīm al - Muzani. He said to him one day: ' God, let nothing come out of thee ( of knowledge ) '. Abū ʿ far Ǧa ( aṭ - Tahawi ) annoyed and joined out the ( Hanafi ) Ibn Abī ʿ Imraan on. When he wrote his Mukhtasar ( Summary of the Hanafi jurisprudence ), he said: ' May God have mercy on Abū Ibrāhīm have! If he were still alive, he would atone for his oath. "

As a lawyer, he went to Egypt as a writer of legal contracts a name. Until his death he was regarded in Egypt as head of the Hanafi school of law. The Andalusian scholar of the Maliki school of Ibn ʿ Abd al - Barr ( † 1071 ) referred aṭ - Tahawi as representatives of the Kufic law school: kūfīy al - madhhab - according to the stronghold of the Hanafi - and as a great connoisseur of all law schools.


  • Ma ʿ ani al - Athar / معاني الآثار / Ma ʿ ani ʾ l - Atar /, The meanings of the Hadith '; the work is summarized according to the chapters of Islamic jurisprudence and discusses the traditions that are attributed in large collections of traditions Mohammed, but - are contrary to the teachings of the Hanafi school of law - in the author's view. The work has been printed in the East several times.
  • Mushkil al - Athar Bayān / بيان مشكل الآثار / Bayān muškili ʾ l - Atar /, explanation of the problems of hadith 'is also a collection of traditions with content and philological - linguistic - discussions of the author. Part of it is as a holograph in the manuscript collection of Istanbul - now in the Süleimaniya Library - receive. The work is in the East in 1987 and 1995 ( Beirut ) in several volumes under the title " al - Atar Sharḥ MUSKIL " been printed.
  • Ichtilāf al - fuqaha ʾ / اختلاف الفقهاء / Iḫtilāfu ʾ l - fuqaha ʾ /, controversy doctrines of jurists ' is - as the same works by other legal scholars of the time - the prevailing between the four orthodox schools of law doctrinal differences in the field of Islamic jurisprudence dar. The work is was first printed in 1971 in Islamabad. In Hanafi scholarly circles is the work that has been, repeatedly commented with his summary of the Hanafi jurisprudence al - muchtasar fil - fiqh / المختصر في الفقه / al - Mukhtasar fī ʾ l - fiqh.
  • Al - Jami ʿ al - Kabīr fī - sch- schurūt / الجامع الكبير في الشروط / al - ʿ al - Kabīr Ǧāmi fī ʾ š - surut /, the large collection of the conditions / requirements ' is the oldest legal form book. The work contains instructions for notaries, are drawn as current certificates, to avoid possible disputes between the contracting parties. The work is not completely preserved. Two parts of it has published the German Orientalist Joseph Schacht.
  • Al - ʿ Aqida / العقيدة /, The Doctrine of the Faith; Credo ' - under the title: " The discussion of the Sunna and the unity of the Muslims " Bayān as- Sunna wal- Jama ʿ a / بيان السنة والجماعة / Bayānu ʾ s- sunna wa - ʾ l - ǧamā ʿ a known - comprises only 10-15 pages. In it, the author discusses the nature of Islamic Monotheism and God's attributes ( Sifat ) in a nutshell. This little work has been commented on multiple times to the 17th century.
  • At- taswiya baina haddathanā wa - baina achbaranā / التسوية بين حدثنا وبين أخبرنا / at- taswiya baina ḥaddaṯanā wa - baina aḫbaranā is a brief discussion of the hadith terminology, via the equation ( taswiya ) of the title two terms: " he gave us " or " he told us." Both terms refer to a direct oral tradition in the hadith literature. However, their application and the question of whether they are interchangeable was controversial among the Aryans tradition. The author believes that these two concepts in the tradition of literature - according to the teachings of the Hanafi school - are interchangeable. In the tradition of methodology ( usul al - hadith ), these and other terms that define the nature of the transmission of knowledge in schools, used in different ways. This paper is cited by the above Andalusian scholar Ibn ʿ Abd al -Barr in excerpts.
  • For the governor of Egypt, Ahmad ibn Tulun ( ruled between 868-884 ), he wrote a treatise on the admissibility of marriage ( nikah ) with slaves.

In the scholarly biographies of Hanafi up to 22 books with titles are given, the AT- Tahawi said to have written. The Iraqi librarian and bookseller Ibn an - Nadim († 995 ) knew even 16 business title.