Aisha bint Abi Bakr (Arabic عائشة بنت أبي بكر, ʿ Ā ʾ DMG Iša bint Abī Bakr ) (* 613 or 614, † 678 in Medina ) was the third and youngest of the nine women of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the daughter of businessman and later Caliph Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr came as Mohammed from the then dominant tribe of Quraysh. It became known as Muhammad's favorite wife.
The marriage with Mohammed
The Islamic traditions, according to Aisha was nine years old at marriage contract with Mohammed six and the consummation of the marriage. The historian Muhammad ibn Sa ʿ d ( † 845 in Baghdad ) narrates in his grade book 's own statement of Aisha, which is said to have said: "The Messenger of God married me in the month of Shawwal in the tenth year of prophecy, three years before the Emigration, when I was six was years old. God's Messenger emigrated and arrived in Medina on Monday, 12 Rabī ʿ al - awwal, and organized the wedding with me in the month of Shawwal, eight months after his departure. The marriage he took with me when I was nine years old. " According to other reports, also passed on as statements by Aisha, she was not six, but seven years old when the marriage contract.
The " defamation Report" ( hadith al - ifk )
Considerable attention in the Arab tradition about Aisha takes the so-called " defamation Report" ( al - ifk Chabar or hadeeth al - ifk ) a. Thus, Ayesha was accused of fornication, but relieved by a revelation (Sura 24:11-20 ). The report is available in a large number of different versions.
According to the version of Ibn Ishaaq, occurs in the Aisha herself as rapporteur, the starting point of the scandal is Muhammad's campaign against the Banū l - Mustaliq, which took place in January and 627 in which Aisha accompanied him in a camel litter. When the army after an overnight stop near Medina in the early morning is about to break up again, away Aisha to relieve themselves. She loses her necklace. Finding one stops them. When she finally found it, the army has already gone away. The carriers have boosted their camel litter, without realizing that it was empty. Aisha is discovered by the Ziigler Safwan ibn al -Mu ʿ attal. He invites her home to his camel and led them, in which he leads the camel itself. After arriving in Medina, she is slandered fornication. Since Aisha ill after arriving, she learns nothing from the campaign against her, only she is facing her astonished at the indifference of Muhammad. Also the home of her parents, in which she replaced after a few days, she learns nothing about it. It was not until more than twenty days later, she is informed by another woman at night Abort response over the scandal. It is clear that, among other ʿ Abd ibn Ubayy, the leader of the Banu Khazraj, and Aisha's cousin Mistah ibn Uthātha behind the smear campaign. Mohammed takes in an address to the accusations position and consults with Usama ibn Zaid Ali and about what to do next. After he has in Aisha's servant Barira inquiries about the fed, he is looking at the weeping Aisha, who is still with her parents. In its call to repentance she protested her innocence. It comes to the revelation of the Quran word of Sura 24:11-20, which confirms Aisha's innocence. The Prophet then holds another Chutba, in which he recites the revealed verses, and assigns corporal punishment for slanderers to.
Political activity after Muhammad's death
While her father and his successor to the Caliphate, Aisha had largely kept out of politics. Only the growing rebellion against the third caliph was their sympathy, and they supported the rebels. However, since she was as against a run of Ali caliphate, they used the assassination of Uthman as a remedy for Ali's rule. Talha ibn Ubaidullah Together with Abdallah ibn az- Zubair and two former companions of Muhammad, they advocated 656 a revolt against the fourth caliph Ali, a cousin of her deceased husband. The Caliph, however, suggested in the so-called " Battle of the Camel " in Basra down the rebellion and captured, among other things Aisha. He pardoned them later and let them escort to Medina, where she lived until her death in 678. You should have decided shortly before her death, to be buried alongside the other women of Muhammad.
Aisha as Tradentin
In the hadith literature Aisha also appears as an important mediator over religious knowledge. More than 1,200 hadiths are attributed to it. Many reports describe how Aisha claims from other people about alleged religious prohibitions or commands refuted by pulling her a practice of the Prophet as a counter argument.