39.204329.6105Koordinaten: 39 ° 12 ' N, 29 ° 37' O
Aizanoi (Greek Αἰζανοί, Latin: Aezani ) is an ancient town in the countryside of Phrygia in Asia Minor (now Turkey, near Çavdarhisar, about 50 km southwest of Kütahya ). It lies in the valley of Penkala (now Kocaçay ), a source flow of Rhyndacus. Extensive excavations make Aizanoi to the well-studied example of a smaller town particularly at the time of the Roman Empire.
After the founding legend, the city was founded by Arcadian settlers. A settlement has come up with archaeological evidence already in the 3rd millennium BC, however, a broader settlement arose only in the Hellenistic period. In around 200 BC along the area, located in the Aizanoi as Phrygia Epictetus ( "to acquired Phrygia " ) to the Kingdom of Pergamon; temporarily they also belonged to Bithynia. The kings of Pergamon settled mercenaries who came probably from Macedonia. Along with her entire kingdom went the city after 133 BC into the Roman province of Asia.
Aizanoi experienced in the early imperial period a big boost. In particular, many public buildings were erected, so n in the middle of the 1st century BC temple of Artemis Hagiotate, and before the end of the sanctuary of Zeus, the chief god of the city, in the form of a pseudodipteros. It is preserved to a large extent. There are the remains of extensive inscriptions from the time of Hadrian, which relate to the land of the sanctuary on the walls of the cella. Noteworthy is an underlying barrel vaults with light windows, which probably served as a sanctuary. Another important deity was the meter Steunene, who was worshiped in a cave.
In the 2nd century AD, a theater was built in several phases, which was connected in an unusual way with the adjacent stadium. In addition, the shore of Penkala was attached and built a still extant bridge in the year 157. Some of these construction activities related to a rich family of the city, especially Ulpius Appuleianus Flavian and his son Ulpius Appuleius Eurycles. Eurycles was also ambassador to Panhellenion in Athens, Hadrian had established.
In this period also created a large bath and gymnasium complex and a well there leading water pipe. Other public buildings were a round building, which served as macellum (market building) and on which a copy of the Edict of Diocletian maximum price was appropriate, and a late antique ( around 400 AD ) colonnaded street.
In Byzantine times Aizanoi was a bishopric. During the Seljuk Tartars were settled.
Excavations in Aizanoi led the German Archaeological Institute in the 1920s and again through since 1970. In addition to researching individual buildings ( Temple of Zeus, stadium, baths) now stands above all the overall layout of the city in the center of interest.