Alessandria ( Piedmontese: Lissändria; German Alexandria ) is a town with 89 446 (as of 31 December 2012) inhabitants in the Italian region Piedmont and capital of the province of Alessandria.
The location of the city is about 70 km east of Turin in the upper Po Valley. It lies at an altitude of 95 meters on the bank of the Tanaro River, near the confluence of the rivers Bormida and Belbo. The city center is on the right side of the river.
Alessandria was founded in 1168 by the residents of the area, in order to defend themselves against the Marquis of Montferrat and the city of Pavia, by their request, it was besieged in 1174 by Frederick Barbarossa for six months without success. The Lombard League took the place and called him Alessandria, by Pope Alexander III ..
After the city had gone through several hands, it was awarded in 1713 the House of Savoy in the Peace of Utrecht, and the construction of a fort was begun in 1728 by Ignazio Bertola. During the French occupation (1800-1814), began after the Battle of Marengo, it was further secured. The facilities were completely destroyed by the Austrians in 1815, but were subsequently rebuilt.
The fortress is located on the left side of the Tanaro and was until 2007 still used by the military.
Alessandria was the seat of many bishops.
In Alessandria, the A21 and A26 motorways intersect. It is also near the A7, the Genoa and Milan runs connects. The train station of Alessandria has national significance. The city has a small airfield for general aviation. The nearest airports are Turin, Genoa and Milan Linate.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Cacucci Pino ( born 1955 ), author
- Carlo Carrettos (1910-1988), writer and Catholic priest
- Mario Celoria (1911-1984), football player
- Louis- Antoine Léonard de Colli - Ricci (1757-1809), General
- Gianni Coscia ( born 1931 ), lawyer and musician
- Roberto Cotroneo (* 1961), writer and journalist
- Umberto Eco ( born 1932 ), writer, media theorist and semiotician
- Emilio Faa 'di Bruno (1820-1866), Piedmontese and Italian naval officer
- Giovanni Ferrari (1907-1982), football player
- Giovanni Ferrofino (1912-2010), Roman Catholic Archbishop and Vatican Diplomat
- Guido Forti (1940-2013), racing driver and team owner
- Marta Gastini (* 1989), actress
- Edoardo Martino (1910-1999), politician, European Commissioner 1967-1970
- Jean Massin ( 1793 -? ), French composer
- Giorgio Merula (1430-1494), humanist
- Giovanni Migliara (1785-1837), painter
- Urbano Rattazzi (1808-1873), politician
- Gianni Rivera ( born 1943 ), football player and politician
- Argenteuil, France, since 1960
- Hradec Králové, Czech Republic, since 1961
- Karlovac, Croatia, since 1963
- Rosario, Argentina, since 1988
- Jericho, Palestine, since 2004
In addition, the city is a member of the Federation of European cities Napoleon. The Province of Alessandria is in partnership with the Province of Pistoia in 2003.