Alexander Bogdanov

Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov (Russian Александр Александрович Богданов; actually Alexander Alexandrovich Malinowski; * 10 Augustjul / August 22 1873greg in Sokalko, .. † April 7, 1928 in Moscow), a doctor by profession, was a Russian philosopher, economist, sociologist and Author utopian novels. He was also known under the name Maximov.


Bogdanov belonged to the editors of newspapers Vperyod (Forward), Proletari (the proletarians ) and Novaya Zhizn ( New Life ). He participated in the V. ( London ) Congress of the RSDLP in part. Between 1904 and 1906 he published three volumes of the philosophical work Empiriomonism, in which he tried to combine Marxism with the philosophies of Ernst Mach, Wilhelm Ostwald, and Richard Avenarius. His later work influenced many Marxist theoreticians, including Nikolai Bukharin. Counter Bogdanov wrote Lenin Empiriomonism his philosophical writing materialism and Empiriocriticism (1909).

1913 Bogdanov returned back due to the amnesty to Moscow. In 1917 he founded with Lunacharsky, Pokrovsky, Bazarov and Skvortsov, the Socialist Academy of Social Sciences and was a member of the Commission for the translation and publication of the Marx- Engels -Werke. From 1918 he was one of the organizers of the " proletarian culture" ( Proletcult ) in which the workers should be allowed an independent cultural and educational movement. He also tried to create a separate organization theory of industrial organization forms.

He also dealt with futuristic stories that he published. His novel The Red Planet is a modern socialist utopia where feminist issues are present. Kim Stanley Robinson drew inspiration for his novel Red Mars by Bogdanov and also created a character similar to him his name.

Shortly before the First World War created Bogdanov with his monumental Tektologie a broad theory of the world organization dynamics, which can be regarded as systems theory, as a crisis and catastrophe theory, as a theory of sustainability and as a global cultural theory at the same time. A major concern was him is to save mankind from falling below a cultural standards, to prevent it from coming to a global leveling and downward adjustment. He feared a relapse of the civilizations in the elemental barbarism.

From 1920 Bogdanov worked as a professor of political economy at the Communist Academy, from 1926 he held the post of Director and founder of the Institute for blood transfusions. Alexander Bogdanov died in 1928 during a scientific experiment on himself.


  • The basic elements of the historical conception of nature. Nature - Life - Psyche - Society, 1899
  • From the psychology of society. St. Petersburg: Dorowatowski and Tscharuschnikow, 1904
  • Empiriomonism Book I -III, 1905 - 1907
  • The country of the Idols and the philosophy of Marxism, In: Otscherki po filossofi Marksizma. St. Petersburg, [ Publisher " Serno " ], 1908
  • The Red Planet (also known as " The Red Star " released ) 1908 Complete edition in Nemesis archive The Red Star. European Higher Education Publishing, Bremen 2010, ISBN 978-3-86741-197-4