- 2.1 Etymology
- 2.2 Earlier spellings
- 3.1 Prehistory
- 3.2 Middle Ages
- 3.3 Modern Times
- 3.4 Amalgamations
- 5.1 Town twinning
- 5.2 City Council
- 5.3 Coat of Arms
- 6.1 Agriculture, forestry, and viticulture
- 6.2 traffic
- 6.3 Established businesses
- 7.1 Management institutions and authorities
- 7.2 educational institutions
- 7.3 Leisure and sports facilities
- 7.4 Health
- 7.5 Seniors
- 7.6 Youth
- 7.7 disposal
- 9.1 center
- 9.2 districts / Surrounding Area
- 9.3 monuments
Alzenau lies in the eastern foothills of the Rhine -Main area in the lower Kahlgrund. Most neighborhoods nestle against or between the slopes of the western foothills of the Spessart to the Hahnenkamm (437 m above sea level. NN ). With around 2,600 hectares of forest and 85 ha of vineyards you probably can rightly speak of the city in the countryside. Nevertheless, it is beyond the adjacent A45 or via the Kahlgrundbahn only a short drive from Aschaffenburg, Hanau or Frankfurt am Main. Alzenau flows through the Kahl.
The municipality has Alzenau six officially designated districts (in brackets the number of inhabitants ):
- Albstadt ( 1308)
- Alzenau ( 7308 )
- Hörstein ( 3335 )
- Kälberau ( 1341 )
- Michel Bach ( 2961 )
- Waterless ( 2660 )
The hamlet Dörsthöfe and the corn Hausen castle are no officially designated districts.
The desertions Bruchhausen and Prischoß were on the present territory of the city Alzenau. The former places Elze, Upper Churchill and Sachsenhausen are now overgrown with structurally Alzenau and are now referred to as residential areas.
In the 10th century, wrote the place name nor Vuillimundesheim ( Wilmundsheim ). The determination word in the original name is the personal name Willi mouth. The name of the castle close to all that is due to how much had to suffer the underlying settlement under her, was awarded the Early New High German root word au ( meadow) provided and transferred to the settlement. The additional designation " Lower Franconia " was in the 20th century to distinguish it from Alzenau in Silesia ( now Poland ) out. In the vernacular of the city " Alsenah " is called.
Earlier spellings of the place from various historical maps and documents:
- 953 Vuillimundesheim
- 1000 Uuillimuntesheim
- 1175 will mouth home
- 1282 Wilmosheim
- 1311 Wilmundsheim
- 1339 Wilmatsheym
- 1361 Wylmutzheym
In the district Alzenau, there are archaeological sites of graves of the Bell Beaker culture (2600 BC), cremations of the older Urnenfeld time (~ 1000 BC ) and settlements and graves of the Hallstatt period ( Early Iron Age ).
The oldest written record of Alzenau dates from the year 950: Links of Kahl is the village Wilmundsheim mentioned.
Alzenau was the chief town of the same court Alzenau, and was one of four dishes that made up the free court Alzenau. The oldest evidence of the free dish comes from 1309. The golden veins in the city coat of arms symbolize this heritage. The open court was undoubtedly rich immediately, but the empire pledged or forgave the area again and again. So changed the rulers, which included the lords and later Counts of Hanau, the lords of the edge Castle and the Lords of Eppstein.
The archbishops and electors of Mainz had since the first half of the 13th century in the library of the wild- ban and built to protect their local rights 1395-1399 the castle Alzenau, the right of the Kahl, opposite Wilmundsheim. 1401 of the settlement were below this castle awarded by King Rupert of the Rhine, the town and market rights, without it then came to an urban development. Later, the old Wilmundsheim merged with the municipal right of Kahl, from which it took its name.
In 1500, the Roman - German King Maximilian I. enfeoffed the Archbishop of Mainz and the Counts of Hanau- coins mountain common with the open court that they now managed as Kondominat. Since outdoor court at the time of Kondominats also remained the ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the archbishops of Mainz, the Reformation was - in contrast to the county of Hanau - coins mountain - here not prevail. Alzenau remained Roman Catholic.
When Count Johann Reinhard III. 1736 as the last male representative of the house Hanau died, inherited the county of Hanau - coins mountain to the part of Hanau also its share of Kondominat Alzenau counted, due to an inheritance contract the Hesse- Kassel. Whether this heritage also covering the Kondominat, was highly controversial in the following years between Kurmainz and Hesse -Kassel. The dispute ended in a compromise, which provided a real division of Kondominats. Alzenau fell while at Kurmainz. The Wheel of Mainz in the municipal coat of arms is a reminder of it.
The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803 closed the office Alzenau of Hesse- Darmstadt, but it retained only 13 years. In 1816, the Grand Duchy came from the office to the Kingdom of Bavaria, to which it belongs since then.
On July 1, 1862, county Alzenau was formed, whose main town was Alzenau. With the construction Kahlgrundbahn got the place - and with it the whole Kahlgrund - from 1898 connection to the rail network. The Kahlgrundbahn favored industrialization, in particular, cigar factories settled, the last of which was only closed in the 1960s. 1902 passed in Kahlgrund 21 cigar factories with 850 employees, some of them in Alzenau.
1951 Alzenau received from the Free State of Bavaria again the municipal law. In the course of district reform in the districts Alzenau and Aschaffenburg were merged on 1 July 1972. Already on 1 January 1972 Kälberau was incorporated. This was followed by the municipalities Albstadt and waterless on 1 July 1972., The market and the community Hörstein Michel Bach on 1 July 1975.
- Roman Catholic parish of St. Justinus; the majority of the population is Roman Catholic.
- Evangelical Lutheran Church of Peter and Paul
- Sint -Oedenrode (Netherlands)
- Pfaffstaetten ( Austria ) (Partner Municipality of Hörstein )
- Thaon- les -Vosges (France)
The Alzenauer city council of 24 members plus the mayor voting.
Started calves Auer list ( district list), once 2008: KL
Coat of arms
Blazon: In red above two crossed golden branches sechsspeichiges a silver wheel
History and Coat of Arms: The coat of arms is conducted since 1926. The six-spoked silver Mainzer Rad is reminiscent of the membership Alzenaus to the Archbishopric of Mainz. The two golden branches were the appointment of a symbol of the officials of the Free Court, who were elected by free Märkern on the Märker thing.
Economy and infrastructure
The city is also characterized by an abnormally high number of local companies that originate largely from high-tech industries. 1999 Alzenau received the Quality Award "Business Friendly Community " from the hand of the Bavarian State Minister for Economic Affairs, Transport and Technology.
Agriculture, forestry, and viticulture
There were 1998 in the field of agriculture and forestry 62 persons work at the workplace. There were in 1999, 82 farms with an agricultural area of 1429 ha, of which 1096 were hectares of arable land and 257 ha of permanent grassland.
In the districts Michel Bach, waterless and Hörstein Franconian wine is grown. Also in Albstadt viticulture was operated until the late 19th century. It still remembers the district Wingertsberg. The vines were brought by the monks of the monastery in Seligenstadt to Alzenau. Overall, however, the agriculture and forestry for the community has lost in importance.
Alzenau currently has three departures from the federal motorway 45 The latest exit " Alzenau Center" was opened on 23 November 2007 after many years of planning time, so it can be ascended from the road connecting Alzenau and Kahl. The industrial areas in Kahl and Alzenau get an even better access to the highway. The Kahlgrundbahn connects the village with the railway stations Kahl am Main and Hanau, where a direct interchange with S -Bahn to Frankfurt am Main or the long-distance trains there.
The individual parts of the city to be approached by the city bus lines. A line runs in both directions every hour from Somborn about Albstadt, Michel Bach, Kälberau, Alzenau and through the neighborhoods waterless and Hörstein as regional bus on to Karlstejn over the station Dettingen, where the regional train to Aschaffenburg and Würzburg (seats of county or district administration ) can be switched, to Aschaffenburg.
The convenient location is an important location factor for the city. The Frankfurt airport with worldwide connections can be achieved journey time by car within 30 to 40 minutes.
A selection of some companies that are domiciled in Alzenau:
- ABB Automation Products
- Applied Materials GmbH
- Biotest Medical
- Leybold Optics GmbH
- MSC Software
- Nukem GmbH
- A Lidl Distribution Centre
Administrative bodies and authorities
- Amtsgericht Aschaffenburg branch Alzenau
- City Council Alzenau
- Polizeiinspektion Alzenau
- District Office Aschaffenburg - branch registration office Alzenau
- Federal Agency for Technical Relief, Ortsverband Alzenau
There are the following facilities (as of 1999):
- Kindergartens: 764 kindergarten places with 705 children
- Elementary schools: four with 81 teachers and 1432 students
- Secondary schools: one with 45 teachers and 1000 students
- Hahnenkamm school to promote learning
- Spessart -Gymnasium Alzenau with about 1500 students
- City Library Alzenau
- Municipal music school Alzenau
- VHS Kahl Alzenau -Karl Stone, extension Alzenau
- "Green Classroom" in the city forest
Leisure and sports facilities
In each district there are halls and sports fields for the numerous sports clubs. There are in every neighborhood playgrounds, and partly also playing fields, basketball hoops and skate parks available ( in Alzenau ). In summer, the forest pool and Meerhofsee are open. In addition, the pool of Edith Stein secondary school is open on some nights of the week for the general public. The resulting from a disused lignite mine waters of Bare Lake District are also within a radius of five to ten kilometers.
FC Bayern Alzenau carries the home games at Municipal Stadium from the Prischoß.
- District hospital Alzenau waterless
- Caritas welfare center St. Paul
- Senior Day Care Alzenau
- Residential park on Hauckwald
- BRK Senior Living
- Youth club " Tea Room"
- Youth center " Jump In "
- 6 green waste collection points
- A major scenic element in Alzenau the large area of orchards, which, with its tall single trees an important habitat for rare species such as Red-backed Shrike or owl. The plants of standard fruit trees is funded by the city.
- Are ecologically very significant beyond the sandy lean lawns in the nature reserve " Alzenauer sands ", which are on some threatened and endangered species habitat wasteland.
Culture and sights
- On the Alzenau Castle in summer the Castle Festival, the AlzenauClassics and autumn, the Frankish Music Festival as part of the " music magic Franks" of the Bavarian Radio instead.
- The tradition of the Baroque parish church of St. Justin the Alzenauer build a bridge up to the year 834 At the time, brought the archbishop of Mainz Otgar the remains of St. Justin of Rome. They came in Justin's Church in Frankfurt - Höchst and from there in 1298 to the monastery of St. Alban in front of Mainz; but a part of the relic also came to the monastery in Einhard Basilica of Blessed city. Since the local Benedictine the old parish church of Wilmundsheim that lay on the present cemetery grounds, with supervised, a cross-connection was drawn and worshiped the Holy Justinus in Alzenau. From the demolished Wilmundsheimer church is only a single capital left; the present baroque church on the market square dates from 1758.
- Built in 1860-62 Town Hall was planned as a school, but was then the Royal Bavarian district office. An extension of the 1974 red sandstone brings contemporary architecture together with the classical building.
- The oldest inn of the city, commonly called "Max" was first mentioned in 1744 as " inn " from the possession of the monastery of Blessed City; in this document, it was sold to a Alzenauer host. The current owner, who over the entwined by Parthenocissus building acquired in 1995, a hotel with a small brewery was in 2004 here, which advertises produce beer after the Reinheitsgebot of 1516.
- The villa Messmer now houses a restaurant in a park with a historic trees.
- The solar course explains the applications of photovoltaics based on 20 examples in the city center (3,5 km trail ) and outside (total course 12 km). In this solar Trail is a joint project of the city Alzenau with the local company Schott Solar (formerly ASE), which produces the solar modules in Alzenau industrial scale.
- In Alzenau stood near the Maximilian Kolbe House today a synagogue in the city for centuries existing Jewish community. The set up there monument recalls that the house of worship destroyed and the Jewish inhabitants were deported to extermination.
Districts / Surrounding Area
Some bicycle and hiking trails around Alzenau are as European Cultural Routes Alzenau I, II and III involved in the of 2000-2003 EU-funded project Pathways to Cultural Landscapes. On these routes, the distinctive target points are marked and documented. Examples:
- The Sanctuary Kälberau of several phases ( 14th to 16th century ) with a large extension to 1955-1957 a Pallottiner Monastery is affiliated. The Sanctuary is home to a miraculous image of the statue of Mary of the harsh wind. Connected to the complex with a 1,5 km long cycle path is to the memory of Our Lady of Sorrows to Alzenau Castle and in due course with a hiking trail to the lookout tower and guest Locally on the Hahnenkamm (second Alzenauer Kulturweg "Forest and Pilgrimage ").
- In the castle to waterless now houses the district hospital.
- The Jewish cemetery between Hörstein waterless and is one of the largest in the district of Aschaffenburg. It was created in 1812, was ravaged by the Nazis and restored after the Second World War. There are obtained 266 grave stones.
- The Catholic parish church to Hörstein ( 1473 ) has a Romanesque tower.
- The Postal Randenburg and Forgotten Castle are two archaeological monuments from the late Middle Ages.
- Historic vineyards extend from Alzenau south through waterless and Hörstein and northeast over Michel Bach and Albstadt ( theme of the First Alzenauer culture path " wine and rule ").
- Castle corn Hausen ( 1753) is in private ownership in the district Albstadt.
- The baroque castle Michel Bach (1730 ) is a former noble country seat in the district Michel Bach, since 2006 houses the local history museum in Alzenau.
- The Church of St. Lawrence in Michel Bach was built in 1777 on the site of an earlier building.
→ List of monuments in Alzenau
- Easter egg hunts and chickens Guggenmusik the KTZV Hörstein (always on Easter Monday )
- Gickelskerb of KTZV Hörstein (always on the last weekend of August )
- Roosters crowing in the betting KTZV Hörstein (always on Whit Monday)
- Orchestra Concert at the Musikverein " Concordia " Michel Bach 1923 eV ( Palm Sunday school gymnasium Michel Bach)
- Wine Festival at the park in the summer garden of the Park Hotel at the waterless district each year during the week of Corpus Christi
- Wine, cheese and brass band music ( the Sunday before Ascension Day, castle Michel Bach)
- Bridge Festival THW Alzenau in Corpus Christi
- Wine village of TV 1901 Michel Bach in front of the castle on the last Sunday in May
- Elmettsgässer Wine Festival (MGV 1913 Harmony Hörstein ) on the last weekend in June
- City Festival on the square and in the center, on the second weekend of August
- October-November: Franconian Music Festival ( choral and chamber music from several centuries )
- Tunes by candlelight in the Prischoßhalle ( 2nd weekend in November )
- Hoffest on Hotel Krone, every year on the first weekend in September
- Great Christmas market on 1st weekend of Advent (ie early December or late November )
- Michel Bacher Wine Festival ( September / October)
- The " Pannfest " is the oldest street festival in the heart of " Pann ", the oldest part Alzenaus in Wilmundsheimer road and was celebrated from 1978 to 2008. The new edition takes place at the Kahlaue in the rectory garden in cooperation with the altar.
→ Main article: List of honorary citizens of Alzenau
Born in Alzenau
- Johann Peter Cornelius d' Alquen (1800-1863), composer and doctor
- Paul ( Pablo) Michel ( 1905-1977 ), chess master
- Arno Borst (1925-2007), historian ( medievalist )
- Franz Adolf Graebner (1944-2004), artist
- Alexander Leipold (born 1969 ), Freestyle wrestler, junior national coach for freestyle wrestling
- Anna Bergmann ( born 1953 ), a cultural scientist
- John Scherer (born 1973 ), presenter and comedian
- Jens Gündling (* 1976), freestyle wrestler
- Heiko Westermann ( b. 1983 ), football player
- David Schnabel ( born 1984 ), art Cyclists
- Björn goat leg (* 1986), football player
- Svenja Huth ( * 1991), football player
- Jochen Bendel (born 1967 ), television and radio presenter
- Pascal Thomas (* 1987), actor, musical singers
Connected to Alzenau
- Ludovica of Bordes (1787-1854), mistress of the castle waterless
- Claus Mehs (1866-1946), architect, built 1902-1904, Villa Messmer