Amazon Kindle

Amazon Kindle [ ʔæməzən ' kɪndl̩ ] (English to kindle, kindle, kindle ') is a product line of eBook readers from Amazon. With the units of electronic books (e - books or e-books), electronic journals and electronic newspapers can ( e-paper ) Amazon downloaded and read. The first device was launched in the United States since November 2007. Amazon offers for its device claims to have 1,215,000 electronic books and a number of electronic newspapers predominantly in English language. Among them there are now over 105,000 German books (as of end of April 2012, at 90,000 the end of March 2012).

On 9 February 2009 Amazon introduced at a press conference the Kindle 2, the successor to the Kindle 1, above. This was both technically improved as changes in design.

Since March 4, 2009 Amazon offers the U.S. a Kindle also called application for the Apple iPhone. Other applications with which the Kindle content can be shown, there is for the Windows, Mac OS X, iOS, and BlackBerry, since June 28, 2010 for Android, and since January 2011 for Windows Phone.

Since 19 October 2009, the Kindle outside the U.S. was also available in Germany and in a hundred other countries. Could be ordered, the Kindle for a long time only on the U.S. Amazon site, now it 's also on the German Amazon site. An international version of the Kindle was available, was in a 3G module (WCDMA modem) installed, can be accessed on the Kindle with the contents " world ".

Since 21 April 2011, the third generation Kindle in versions Wi-Fi and 3G was available via - continue only with English user interface. At the same time opened a Kindle Store.

A fourth version of the Kindle devices is available in the U.S. since September 28, 2011; the base model Kindle 4 is available in Germany since October 12, 2011, the Kindle Touch only since the spring of 2012 for the first time included the devices multilingual menu guides and are -. , as before - as Wi-Fi or 3G versions with touch screen as well as in a version without touchscreen only available with Wi-Fi. At the same time introduced Amazon also provides for the Kindle Fire tablet computer, which was delivered from 15 November 2011 in the United States. The Kindle Fire is significantly cheaper than the iPad competitor, but also only has a smaller 7- inch display and is equipped with either the camera or microphone, which makes impossible the use of some services such as video telephony.

The fifth generation was announced on 6 September 2012 in the United States and has been on 12 October 2012 ordered in Germany. This is an e- book reader with white background and the display integrated lighting.

The sixth generation was announced on 3 September 2013. The standard version of the "New Kindle White Paper " is available since October 9, 2013 in Germany. The 3G version is less than a month later, published on 6 November 2013.

  • 4.1 Kindle Fire
  • 4.2 Kindle Fire HD
  • 4.3 Kindle Fire HDX

Technical parameters

  • The screen of the monochrome Kindle models based on the concept of electronic paper. These models usually have no backlight and are - compared to tablet computers and other devices with TFT or AMOLED screens - to read in sunlight well with high contrast. This applies Amazon as an advantage over the Apple iPad. Compared to devices with TFT display a significantly longer battery life is possible.
  • The Kindle models with the addition of " 3G " have a wireless interface after CDMA2000/EVDO-Standard. About the so-called Whispernet can wireless provider such as Sprint Nextel and Vodafone " world " electronic books, magazines and newspapers from the Kindle Store, web shop Amazon, purchased or subscribed to. In this case there is no additional transfer fees. As a reading sample of the beginning of each e-books can be read for free, after paying the entire e -book is transferred to the Kindle.
  • The purchased books, magazines and newspapers can be protected by a Digital Rights Management (DRM).
  • Supported display formats Kindle (. Azw ), Text (. Txt) file (. Jpeg,. Gif,. Png,. Bmp), Portable Document Format (. Pdf) and Mobipocket (. Mobi, . Prc ).
  • The Kindle (up to 3rd generation and Keyboard, Fire, Touch) can also extract audio files in MP3 (. Mp3) and Audible Audio (. Aa) play and in addition to a built-in speakers and a 3.5 mm jack stereo output.
  • The system software of the e -book reader is based on GNU / Linux; the source code of the used open source software has been released by Amazon before the start of sales of the first Kindle, but does not include in-house developments.


The user options to display on the screen differ for the versions with keyboard or without keyboard with contact sensors on the screen.

  • Beginning: the presentation of text and graphics is done by simply selecting with tapping the appropriate files from the selected collection immediately from the first page. The screen is used to display a total.
  • Line roles: By fully automatic line break for text without moving (left -right-left ) is readable. The Portable Document Format (. Pdf) is displayed with all row and will not wrap automatically.
  • Side roll: The scope of a book page by shifting ( down - up-down ) to read. The Portable Document Format (. Pdf ) is shown as whole page, and is not automatically increase. But there is a zoom function.
  • Browse: forward will scroll at the touch versions by tapping the screen in the middle. Scrolls backward through tapping the screen on the left. For the models without touch there at the edge of the housing ergonomically positioned scroll buttons.

The presentation of text and graphics can be changed on the Kindle Touch and Fire by:

  • Zooming: is zoomed by simultaneously touching two fingers and pulling apart. A is enlarged and displayed superimposed. This feature must be selected for all display formats.
  • Rotate: Filmed by simultaneously touching two fingers and rotating. This option is not supported for the Portable Document Format (. Pdf).

Devices with electronic paper

The Taiwanese company Prime View International Co., Ltd. introduced the Kindle 2 and the Kindle DX forth on behalf of Amazon. In June 2009, Prime View International took over the U.S. firm E Ink Corporation, the manufacturer of displays for the Kindle.

Kindle 1

The first model of the Kindle was introduced on 19 November 2007 and sold for the price of 399 U.S. dollars. The battery life was with switched wireless interface around two days when switched wireless interface about 8000 page change. The device weighed 292 grams and measured 19.1 × 13.5 × 1.8 inches. It contained a 15.2 - inch grayscale screen with 600 × 800 pixels and has 2GB of internal memory, of which 1.4GB is available to the user, so there could be stored up to about 1500 books. The memory could be expanded with SD memory cards.

Kindle 2

On 9 February 2009 Amazon announced the second model, the Kindle 2, on which was sold at a price of $ 359 since February 23, 2009; later (June 2010 ) the price was lowered to $ 189. The unit had a longer battery life, a faster by about 20 percent image structure and a voice output; In addition, the thickness of the device was reduced from about 2 to 1 centimeter. The Kindle 2 had as its predecessor model 2 GB of internal flash memory, but no slot for SD memory cards more. To promote sales, Stephen King's new novella UR at the time was made available exclusively for the Kindle.

Early report of the site According to one of the Kindle 2 was working with a manufactured in 90 - nanometer technology ARM11 Processor Freescale 532 MHz, 2 GiB moviNAND flash memory and a lithium -polymer battery with 3.7 V electric voltage and 1530 mAh capacity.

Since 19 October 2009, an international version was offered in the U.S. in addition to the original U.S. model Kindle 2, which was the U.S. model largely identical but has not pursued the telecommunications network from Sprint, but the mobile phone network AT & T. In addition, it also took advantage of network technologies such as UMTS, EDGE and GSM. According to Amazon, the international version was thus used in more than 100 countries. On 22 October 2009, the All-American version was completely withdrawn from the market.

Kindle DX

On 6 May 2009 Amazon announced the Kindle DX, which is due to its larger screen for reading newspapers and magazines. The 9.7-inch e-ink screen can display 16 shades of gray. Its resolution is 1200 × 824 pixels at 150 ppi. Below the display sits the Kindle typical keyboard. The housing is 264 × 180 mm in size and 9.7 mm thick. The weight is 536 grams.

The Kindle DX came to the U.S. Commerce on June 10, 2009.

Kindle 3

29 July 2010 Amazon announced the third generation of the Kindle, which is compared to their predecessors flatter, faster and cheaper. The unit was shipped since August 2010 and is available in two versions (WLAN / Wi-Fi UMTS) available. The price fell to $ 139 or $ 189, depending on features. The display size of the second generation of six inches was maintained, but an increase in contrast to 50 percent was achieved. Thanks to Wi-Fi and based on WebKit and "experimental" browser called the viewing of web content is possible, for example, Article of online magazines ( "Article Mode" ).

Since April 2011, the Kindle 3 is available on Amazon Germany, where he has been operational since 28 September 2011 in contrast to the Kindle Touch as Kindle Keyboard 3G.

Kindle 4 series

On 28 September 2011 Amazon announced the fourth-generation Kindle. This consists of the Kindle, Kindle Touch, Kindle Touch 3G and the Kindle Fire, all of which do not require physical keyboard. Instead, text input via a virtual keyboard to be made. Linked to this is the first time possible to enter European characters. The monochrome reader Kindle and Kindle Touch have a 6- inch e - ink display, with a major change from the software, the predecessor devices is that a complete refresh of the display takes place after every sixth page. This has the positive effect that the turning is much more fluid and the necessary for the refresh inverting the page is done less frequently. The downside is that there will be ghosting, ie stay on a page, even if only faintly discernible, remains of the previous page. The writing is, for example, with each page turning without refresh always " friable " because of retarded white pixels. Whether one prefers the constant refresh, is ultimately a matter of taste of the user, and therefore Amazon made with a software update for the Kindle 4 is a setting option, which allows you to choose between two methods of the refresh.


Under the name of an entry-level Kindle model is offered. Compared to the previous model, battery capacity and memory size are reduced and the audio part and therefore the read-aloud function is omitted. The virtual keyboard is controlled by a cursor. The weight is 170 grams. offers the device to also subsidized by advertising variant.

Kindle Touch

The Kindle Touch has a touch screen and optical corresponds in terms of battery capacity and memory size of the previous model, the Kindle 3, which is now offered as a Kindle Keyboard. The variant Kindle Touch 3G also has a mobile component. The weight of the Touch is 213 grams, the 3G device weighs 220 grams. However, the Kindle Touch Kindle offered in contrast to previous models and no rotation of the display ( landscape view ) more, the A4 is useful for example when viewing PDFs in larger page sizes such as DIN. The format of the cross option is available on models delivered in Germany again available or can be retrofitted with state update to version 5.1.

In July 2012, a severe vulnerability in the browser was known by the call can be personalized with a specially crafted web page to execute arbitrary commands as the root user to run on the device. The gap is being actively exploited by a Web-based jailbreak, whereby the Kindle Touch can unlock by visiting a particular website.

Due to the availability of newer Kindle models Amazon began in October 2012 in order to take the Kindle Touch gradually from the market. Initially, the device was in the UK no longer available, other countries followed suit. The e- book reader will still be sold through retail partners.

Kindle Paperwhite

The Kindle Paperwhite is available at since October 2012 and has a display with higher resolution (212 ppi, 1024x758 pixels, almost XGA ) and a caring for a higher contrast lighting. With 213 grams of weight, it is about a quarter heavier than the lightest Kindle or 15% heavier than the Kobo Glo or the Cybook Odyssey HD Front Light with similar fundamentals. The device has 2GB of storage space ( for up to 1100 books), equivalent to half of its predecessor Kindle Touch corresponds to (4 GB, up to 3000 books). In Germany and other European countries in the Kindle Paperwhite sold since November 2012. After considerable criticism, Amazon pointed out that the illumination at the bottom is not necessarily uniform. Criticism is still the lack of hardware buttons for scrolling, selecting the supplied fonts, and that the software is no automatic hyphenation controls to make the justification appear more balanced. Software updates include, inter alia, optimizations of the font.

The second generation of Kindle Paperwhite (model 2013) is equipped with the new screen technology E Ink Carta. This yields through better black and white values ​​increased by 50 % according to Amazon contrast compared to the previously used E-Ink Pearl technology. Amazon also indicates (which is not fully disable it) improved, built a 25 % faster processor and made ​​the grid of the touch screen meshed by 19% to have the screen light. The dimensions of the unit have not changed, the ratio has been reduced from 213 to 206 grams. In addition to the improvements to the hardware, there are also some minor changes to the software, such as the integration of the social network read GoodReads. The price of the new model is similar to the old one.

With liquid crystal displays

Kindle Fire

The Kindle Fire is a tablet computer with dual-core processor ( TI OMAP 4 4430 1 GHz ), a 7-inch (180 mm) large multi- touch display and 8 GB expandable not mass storage. The Fire may therefore play next to the "classic" e-book reader function, inter alia, multimedia content such as music and movies. Experts classify the Kindle Fire as a competitor for the Apple iPad a. Reason is the wide range of media that offers Amazon via its Internet platform to buy, and compared to the iPad significantly lower price. The device can only buy so far with Wi-Fi. The launch in Germany was October 25, 2012 With the Amazon Kindle Fire introduces a new web browser technology. Amazon Silk. This browser functions are outsourced in the Amazon EC2 cloud technology to realize increases in speed. Amazon calls the principle of " Split Browsing ". All Internet accesses of the browser are thus guided by an Amazon 's own platform. The Kindle Fire uses a modified version of the Android operating system that has been adapted by the manufacturer to meet the requirements of the device. Thus, this model also has no access to Google Play, but the Amazon 's own Amazon Appstore is utilized.

Kindle Fire HD

Amazon has unveiled four successor models of the Kindle Fire in Santa Monica on September 6, 2012. While the updated Kindle Fire with a faster processor and more memory will be equipped, the new models on higher resolution displays. Thus, the display offers the Kindle Fire HD 8.9 " 1920 × 1200 pixels, the Kindle Fire 1280 × 800 pixels. Additionally, two WLAN antennas, dual band support, a webcam and two dual stereo speakers are built. Amounts Battery life approx. 11 hours. in Germany the small version of the Kindle Fire HD has been released on October 25. the larger device with 8.9- inch screen is since March 13, 2013 available in Germany.

Kindle Fire HDX

Amazon continues to focus on two display sizes, there is a 7- inch model and a 8.9- inch version with a second camera on the back. The Kindle Fire HDX features a 2.2GHz quad-core Snapdragon CPU 800 with the Adreno 330 graphics processor and 2 GB of RAM. The resolution is the Kindle Fire 7 inch HDX 1920x1200 pixels with a pixel density of 323 ppi. The Kindle Fire HDX 8.9 inch has a resolution of 2560x1600 pixels with a pixel density of 339 ppi. There are two models in 16, 32 or 64 GB of memory and Wi-Fi and optional LTE mobile. With a newly designed magnesium housing Amazon wants to have saved a third of the weight. Prices start at 199 euros (7 inches) and 379 euro ( 8.9 inches ). On the new Kindle HDX 's new operating system OS 3.0 Fire " Mojito " is installed. Fire OS 3.0 is a modified version of Android and Amazon has some new features. A unique feature is the so-called MayDay button. Thus, users can get help on the tablet with a tap. It is not only a help dialog or a FAQ will be shown, but there is a live connection to an Amazon support staff.

Kindle on other platforms

It is possible, on other platforms, currently Windows, Mac OS X, Android, iOS, BlackBerry OS and Microsoft Windows Phone to read Kindle books. Software is to be installed on the platform. About the Amazon Whispernet books, notes, bookmarks, etc. are synchronized. In addition, is always displayed on all connected devices, the last read location.

Marketing and market position

The marketing of the Kindle is Amazon uses the strategy of viral marketing, marketing through recommendation. In a powered Amazon online Contacts Forum with the slogan " See a Kindle in Your City " have interested parties and potential buyers the opportunity to make contact with an already committed user of the e-book reader in their environment to meet with this to look at the unit and can be explained. In this way, a fairly large and growing social network is formed mainly in the major U.S. cities since the launch of the device.

In February 2009, the American writer Stephen King published the novella UR, which is currently available exclusively on a Kindle and it's also in the content of this unit.

After failed negotiations with the German telecommunications providers Amazon announced in June 2009 that Kindle will not appear in the foreseeable future on the German market. In July 2009, the price dropped to seventh in the U.S. to 299 dollars, and in China a plagiarism of the Kindle 2 was released October 19th 2009, he is however also available in Germany. On 21 April 2011, the German Kindle Store went online with German content.

In the summer of 2010, more Kindle books than hardcover books were purchased at Amazon USA. So the mail-order sold in June 2010 to 100 conventional books 180 Kindle books. Thus, the sale of e-books in the first half of 2010 has more than tripled compared to the first half of 2009. One reason for the increase in numbers is again lower the price of the Kindle, which has tripled the sale of the equipment. In July 2010, the price of the hardware was $ 189. On 19 May 2011 Amazon announced that since April 1, 2011 100 printed books 105 fee-based e -books were sold at; were not included free e -books.

So far there are no official statistical data with number of Kindle devices sold to date; Estimates the beginning of 2010 stood at 3,000,000 units sold by the end of 2009. In March 2011, IDC published a study in worldwide sales of about 12.8 million e- book readers for 2010, including 48 % ( ≈ 6.1 million ) Amazon Kindle models. After introduction in late 2011, the Kindle 4 models Amazon published its first sales figures of December so be between mid- November and mid- deposed 2011 weekly over one million Kindle devices; this covers all available devices ( Kindle 3/Keyboard, Kindle 4 and Kindle Fire). The Kindle Fire is currently the Android Tablet with the largest market share; In February 2012, the market share with 54.4 % of all tablets in the U.S. has been specified. The market research firm Gartner expects that Amazon will sell a total of 18.4 million units in 2012.

Kindle Direct Publishing

With Kindle Direct Publishing ( KDP) that Amazon provides a platform that allows authors and ( small ) publishers to publish e-books on Amazon. The service is offered free of charge, however, Amazon retains 30-65 % of the revenue generated as a commission. Upon publication of the author specifies, inter alia, the sale price and the distribution area, but Amazon reserves the right to independent price changes. The decision as to whether the e-book is provided with DRM lies with the author or publisher.

Digital rights management (DRM )

The Amazon Kindle system consisting of Kindle Store, Kindle devices and reading apps for PCs, tablets and smartphones, uses Amazon 's proprietary digital rights management ( DRM) technology. About the Kindle Store purchased DRM - protected books can only be read on devices and apps that are registered to an Amazon account. A transfer of e-books is to be prevented.

The publisher or the author determines whether an e-book is provided with or without DRM, not Amazon.

The DRM of the Kindle was cracked, so that removal of copy protection is possible under certain conditions.


"In addition, the software provides information on the Amazon digital content on your Kindle and other devices, and use of digital content by you ready ( for example, last page read and content archiving ). Annotations, bookmarks, notes, highlights, or similar markings you make using your device or reading app, as well as any other information that you provide may be stored on servers outside of the country in which you live. Markers can be used for other Kindle users to provide anonymous information on the most frequently highlighted passages. The use and use of your marks and notes can be determined at any time by changing the default settings. "