AMD K9 is the unofficial name for AMD's dual-core processors on K8 basis. The term AMD K9 stands in the tradition of K5 to K8 generations. The processors of the K9 generation were called the " dual-core versions of the K8 " presented and known. Originally, the K9 should be a completely new CPU design ( with the code name: Greyhound ) and will be released in late 2005. The name of K9 was only with the introduction of the K10.

Technical details

The K9 generation is designed from the ground up as a dual core processor. On a processor is not only the processing unit and the cache, but also the integrated memory controller and the crossbar, the second core only needs to be connected to the housed.

Since two processor cores are present, a K9 processor behaves in software similar to a two-processor system. This means that only the simultaneous use of several programs a performance increase can be achieved, if not specially adapted programs are used. These custom programs run in multiple threads, each of which - independent of the other threads - can be run on a separate processor core.

The K9 processors posing as Hyper -Threading capable to take advantage of various optimizations that only the Intel Pentium 4 and Intel Xeon processors so far benefited.

Are produced, these processors in AMD's factories in Dresden, Fab 30 ( soon Fab 38) and Fab 36 First of all Athlon X2 processors were manufactured in the 90nm process for Socket 939 and bore the name of Manchester or Toledo. In mid-2006 the Windsor core was finally presented, which was intended for the Socket AM2, and now contained a DDR2 memory controller and additional minor or for the mass market at that time rather insignificant improvements and features such as virtualization technology Pacifica. If the socket 939 even between versions with 2 × 512 KiB L2 cache (Manchester ) and 2 × 1024 KiB L2 cache (Toledo) distinguished, so there is the Windsor - core still with both outfits. Finally, appeared at the end of 2006, the Brisbane core, which is prepared in AMD's new factory 36 in 65 - nm process. By the finer manufacturing process decreased production costs, higher clock rates and thus more power were compared to the 90nm versions not achieved. However, the standard TDP 65nm models was reduced to the level of EE- 90-nm models. To date, there is the Brisbane - core with 2 × 512 KiB L2 cache.


When K9 - generation AMD relies on the familiar from K8 product name " Athlon " and " Opteron ".

Processors of the K9 - generation

The following processor families AMD based on the K9 - generation:

Successors and derivatives

The low-power versions are based on the K9 microarchitecture, but have a lower power consumption. They have inherited from K8L this property.

Medium term, the K9 - generation will be replaced by the revised processor architecture AMD K10.