Zungenbeckensee theoretical renewal time: 2.7 years Circulation: dimictic
Ammersee is after the Chiemsee and Starnberger See the third largest lake in Bavaria ( under the lakes that lie exclusively in Bavaria) and reaching the farthest north pre-Alpine lake. It counts as an unincorporated community with the communities on the west bank to the district of Landsberg am Lech. The eastern shore is one of several municipalities in the district of Starnberg, and a small part in the south to the mouth of bunting to the district Weilheim -Schongau. The lake is owned by the Free State of Bavaria, for the management of which is the Bavarian Administration State-owned Palaces, Gardens and Lakes in charge. The lake has an area of approximately 47 square kilometers and a maximum depth of about 80 meters. Situated on the southern end of the lake island of Sweden has already become by the progressive silting on a peninsula and will eventually merge completely with the shore.
The result is the Ammersee like other lakes in the Bavarian Alps with the melting of Ice Age glaciers. The lake basin was a typical Zungenbeckensee in Saale-/Riß- and Würm the Loisach glaciers, which extended as part of the Isar- Loisach glacier from the " Garmisch gate" until well into the country, ejected.
About 16,000 years ago the ice began to melt slowly and in front of around 14,000 years surrounded the remaining side and end moraines then a water surface. The lake stretched then in a north-south direction for about 37 km, covering an area of today Weilheim in the south to the north Grafrath. Also in Herrsching branching off to the northeast branch pool with today Pilsensee was still a part of the entire lake, whose level was about at the present level. Since then, the lake shrank to today 47 square kilometers.
This was due on one hand deposits of inflows, particularly of bunting in the south and in the north Windach that continuously entrained debris were unloading in the lake, while the other led to the silting biogenic deposits. The sedimentation continues, the expected " life " of the Ammersee is estimated to have about 20,000 years.
The water level of Lake Ammersee was contrary to popular representation in the older literature never significantly higher than today. The transverse valley of Grafrath - Wildenroth was already formed during the melting of glaciers, such as the gritty Eisrandterrassen formed by melt water proof on both sides of the Ammersee and the Amper moss.
Ammersee is one of the most studied lakes in Bavaria. Its water quality is mainly determined by the Limestone coming from the main tributary Ammer. The bunting drained about three-quarters of the nearly 1,000 km ² catchment area. Their mean discharge is 16.6 m³ / s valued ( level fish, annual number 1941/1989 ). In special weather conditions, such as when the snowmelt is accompanied by persistently heavy continuous rain, the runoff up to 600 m³ / s may rise and be strong clouded by suspended solids. At the end of a prolonged dry period the outflow of bunting falls sometimes below 3 m³ / s The Amper as an outflow of the lake leads from an average 21.1 cubic meters of water per second at a mean water level of 140 cm at the level webs (annual number 1975/1994 ). The weak low water levels Amper - the lowest recorded water level was 119 cm on 14 August 1994 - demonstrate the strong retention effect ( retention and memory function) of the Ammersee. The mean high water level of 195 cm ( level lands, annual number 1975/1994 ), however, can be significantly exceeded in extreme weather events, the highest ever measured water level was 337 cm on 27 May 1999. During floods the adjacent north and south siltation zones serve as long-range inundation area and thus provide effective protection against flooding. In particular, the downstream in Amper places gain confidence through this protective function, as the sometimes extreme flood peaks of bunting greatly mitigated the lake and leave has been extended.
Biology and Conservation
The endangered in the sixties of the 20th century, water quality could be significantly improved by comprehensive sewage treatment rehabilitation measures such as the construction of a loop, the startup of the plant in Eching in 1971 and the renovation of the sewage treatment plants in the Ammer catchment. Additional information about the history and development of the treatment plant Eching offer the AWA Ammersee, which manages the water and sanitation in the region. Since the mid- eighties, the nutrient load of the water has shifted from eutrophic to mesotrophic range, which means the nutrient load is low to moderate, the production of algae as standard and the average Secchi depth over 2 m. The use of the Ammersee as bathing, making it long term.
Of the surviving fish in the lake, especially an endemic whitefish (Coregonus bavaricus ) is known to be a mainly encountered in the Alpine foothills lakes whitefish, whose presence has led to a long tradition quite intensive use from fishing the lake. The lake also the only true low char lives in Central Europe ( Salvelinus evasus ). 2010 was even a new fish type, the Ammersee - ruffe ( Gymnocephalus ambriaelacus ), which also occurs only in the Ammersee described.
With the nature reserves Vogelfreistätte Ammersee South Shore ( which also houses the island lies Sweden ), Seeholz and Seewiese and Ampermoos heard the Ammersee to the seven internationally significant wetlands of Bavaria after the so-called Ramsar Convention. On the west bank of the shore access is blocked except for short distances to the public, but almost the entire eastern shore is open to the public. Large riparian areas are still in near-natural state, the earlier dense reed stands, however, have declined substantially since the late sixties.
The Ammersee in the Five Lakes region, the other four eponymous lakes are in the region of Lake Starnberg, the Worthsee, the Pilsensee and Wessling Lake, is not only among the most popular tourist destinations in Bavaria with a national reputation, but also to the preferred recreation areas in Augsburg and Munich population. Especially in summer, the Ammersee is therefore influenced by massive tourism. From the two only about 50 km away conurbations it comes on nice weekends a veritable stampede on beach bathrooms, beer gardens and the biking and hiking trails around the lake. Since most visitors arriving by car or motorcycle, are obtained for the neighboring communities large traffic and parking problems. Empfehlenswerter therefore, the arrival by train, either on the location on the eastern shore terminus Herrsching the Munich S-Bahn or with the entire western shore extending Ammersee web coming from Augsburg.
The Bavarian Seenschifffahrt drive around the lake with a fleet of four passenger ships. To Ammersee fleet (since 70 years, the first newly built paddle steamer Germany ) include the 2002-built steamer Herrsching, the historic paddle steamers and motor vessels Diessen Utting and Augsburg. Salient Structures am Ammersee are the big parabolic mirror of the earth station Raisting.
Cheap wind conditions are offered in summer for strong sailing and surfing mode. Sailing is theoretically possible without a license, but most boat hire and sailing clubs require at least an A - certificate or the Sportbootführerschein inland. Sailing Boats shorter than 9.20 m and without motor can be used in the context of the common use without permission, the local rules are to be observed (eg distance to the shore, protected areas, priority of passenger ships ). There are public intake ramps, mooring buoys or webs are subject to approval. There is a Bojenvormerkliste with a waiting period of seven to nine years. The permit is issued for a period of seven years. A new entry in the Memp can earlier than six months before expiry of the buoys approval. Also a concession agreement with the Bavarian Palace Department is complete for the berth.
The use of motorboats is subject to strict regulations and therefore hardly takes place, exemptions have water rescue, water police and fishermen, some boat hire and sailing clubs. However, there are also several private motor boats on the lake.
Engine and electric boats as well as sail boats with more than 9.20 m in length or with an auxiliary motor 4 kW or with living, cooking or sanitary facilities require approval of the district office Landsberg am Lech and an indicator as well as a private-sector concession agreement with Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung. An application for approval of a motor boat, there is a Motorbootvormerkliste with a waiting period of about three years. Permits may be for motor boats up to max. 9 m length and max. 191 kW (260 hp) will be issued for a period of five years. A new entry in the Memp can earlier than three months before the expiry of the motor boat license.
Vacationers can get a leisure approval for a maximum of four weeks for sailing boats and electric boats.
Water skiing is possible at certain times of the day on a given area in the southern part of the lake.
Diving is permitted in the Ammersee in the context of the provisions of general order of the district office Landsberg am Lech.
Important places on the lake shore
Landkreis Landsberg am Lech ( west bank ), including Ammersee:
- Diessen districts and St. Alban and Riederau
- Am Ammersee
- Utting am Ammersee and district Holzhausen am Ammersee
- Eching am Ammersee
Starnberg region (East Bank ):
- Herrsching am Ammersee and Related Breitbrunn
- Inning am Ammersee and the districts Stegen am Ammersee book and am Ammersee
Weilheim -Schongau ( south shore ):
- Fishing at the Ammersee
Starnberg region (East Bank ):
- Andechs Monastery
Use means am Ammersee
Am Ammersee, there are six local groups of the water rescue. In Unterdießen and Herrsching a fire boat is stationed in each case, in addition Unterdießen a police boat.
→ List of monuments am Ammersee ( unincorporated )