Amniotic band constriction

Amniotic band syndrome (ABS, ADAM ( amniotic deformity adhesions mutilations ), amniotic constrictions or Schnürringe ) can be congenital (more precisely, congenital ) birth defects ( malformations ) which shall arise by mechanical means during pregnancy, when strong adhesive fibrous bands ( Schnürringe ) body parts ( arms, legs, toes or fingers, that is cut off dysmelia ) of the unborn child.


The bands are caused by tearing of the innermost layer of the amnion, the amnion during pregnancy, causes are difficult to clarify. The causes for a slightly more frequent probability of occurrence will be discussed:

  • Metabolic diseases of the mother ( eg, diabetes mellitus)
  • Exposure of teratogenic effects during pregnancy, such as X-ray exposure or taking medication ( Note: The Thalidomide does not mechanically by pinch of limbs, but through inhibition of the growth factor, so that other typical deformities during growth of limbs arise, see Phocomelia )
  • Inherited susceptibility to the formation of amniotic bands
  • Mechanical action (accidents during pregnancy)


Body parts ( arms, legs, fingers, toes, etc.) are wrapped by the cord-like fibrous bands strong adhesive and adherent (eg syndactyly ), are hindered in growth (eg, hypoplasia, club feet or other forms of dysmelia ) or be completely separated (congenital amputation, eg aplasia ). Also malformations such as cleft lip or Kieferdysplasien in the face, open back or abdomen, also milder forms such as distal Lymphedema can be caused by the tapes.


The tapes can be diagnosed by ultrasound. They are rarely seen after the birth as constrictions. Sometimes a abgeschnürtes limb must be amputated after birth.


Treatment options vary from case to case. They consist in surgical correction of deformities (eg separation of conjoined fingers and toes) or misaligned (eg, clubfoot ) after birth, if necessary in the use of aids such as prostheses, physiotherapy and / or psychological counseling.


ICD -9: 658.8

ICD -10: Q65 - Q79.8