The Amper south of Furstenfeldbruck
Template: Infobox River / NACHWEISE_aus
The Amper is a river in the Alpine foothills of Bavaria and, together with the bunting a continuous flow system. The name refers to the Ammer headwaters to the Ammersee, Amper the rest from the lake to the mouth of the Isar river in Moosburg. The natural river system over a wide range is 185 kilometers long and an average discharge of 45 m³ / s in front of the Loisach is the main tributary of the Isar River. With a catchment area of 3100 km ², it drains an area with the same area as the Isar River at their confluence in Moosburg, the lower outflow is a consequence of the smaller alpine share. Your largest tributaries are the Glonn ( rises near Augsburg), the Würm ( outflow of Lake Starnberg ) and the Maisach.
- 7.1 Marine
- 7.2 energy
- 7.3 Tourism
Originally called the river from its source to its confluence with the River Isar Amper. 1243 Ammersee is first described as Amirsee and only from the 14th century, a distinction is made between the bunting as inflow to the Ammersee and the Amper.
The term Amper can be derived from the Indo-European root * ombh, * mbh derived, which denotes water or a watercourse. The Celtic name * ambra was adopted by the Romans and is attested as genitive and locative Ambre Ambrae since the 3rd century. According to another interpretation Amper is related Ampart with the Breton and Celtic word order. Thus, the river name would be sent for the terms, articulate and strong.
The bunting, and thus also the Amper, drained a portion of the Ammer Mountains to the northeast of the Isar and thus the Danube. Your two largest tributaries are the Glonn and the Würm.
The source area of bunting is located southwest of Oberammergau in the area of the Ammer Mountains. The various source pots are fed from the water here outcropping of Linder. This small mountain springs ten kilometers southwest near the border between Tyrol and Bavaria, near Schloss Linderhof or only slightly east of the Ammer saddle. Just four miles west of the source area of bunting seeps the Linder in the permeable, calcareous subsoil to get back as bunting to emerge after a short time.
This point in the river bed is about river kilometer 185, or about 1 km north of the first river kilometer panel 186.200. The length of the Ammer River system is not a total 168 km, but rather 186 km.
North of Unterammergau leaves the river after about 15 kilometers, the Bavarian Alps and then flows through the Ammer - Loisach Hill Country. In this resulting from the deposits of the Isar- Loisach Ammersee glacier during the Ice Age, young moraine landscape of the Ammer cuts up to 80 meters deep into the moraines and in the upcoming including molasses. In Peißenberg it leaves the gorge and flows is a long and wide valley until it flows east of Unterdießen in the Ammersee. A little earlier branches still left from the old bunting, which is taken after a short run from the longer but usually a lower water content Rott.
In Grafrath the Valley of the Amper first cuts through a terminal moraine of the Isar- Loisach glacier of the Würm glacial period and then flows from Fürstenfeldbruck the Munich gravel plain. Northeast of Dachau she comes into the area of tertiary Donau -Isar hill country and finally ends at Moosburg in the Isar. Shortly before the opening of the Amper most of their water (30 m³ / s) withdrawn and fed to the south by a channel at Moosburg over the Isar. By a further connection channel this water is used in the Uppenbornwerken on Medium -Isar canal for power generation.
Overall, the river system Ammer / Amper overcomes 430 meters. Almost 200 meters loses the bunting of them in the 20 km long gorge south of Peissenberg.
- Little Bunting
- Grinding Mill Laine
- Scissors Auer Laine
- Half Ammer
- Eggs Bach
- Words Bach
- Linder (often considered the headwaters )
- Large Laine
- Tight Laine
- Kappel Laine
- Forest Laine
- Ach ( outflow of Lake Season )
- Inninger Bach ( outflow of Lake Wörth )
- Würm ( outflow of Lake Starnberg )
- Cold Erbach
Ammer and amps were most likely used since prehistoric times by settling along the river Celtic tribes as transport. When the Romans in the first century conquered the area of present-day Upper Bavaria, they opened up the country with well-developed roads. One of the most important military and trade routes, the Via Julia Association, Augusta Vindelicorum ( Augsburg) with Juvavum (Salzburg). These roads were not only used by the military, but especially by traders to transport at that time so valuable salt better. To overcome the Amper sure the Romans built bridges, as for example in Schöngeising. The resulting easy control of trade allowed regular income from customs duties and won so of additional importance. So also it is the foundation of the medieval city of Fürstenfeldbruck directly related to the construction of a bridge.
During the great migrations in the fifth century invaded Alemannic tribes prior to the range of bunting / Amper. The Alemanni were indeed forced back into the sequence by the Bavarian tribes, but the course of the two rivers in about still forms the language border between the Swabian and Bavarian dialect. During the Thirty Years' War, a Swedish army marched a total of three times ( 1632-1634 ) along the Amper to reach Augsburg and Munich.
The recurring floods caused again Floods in the adjacent towns and cities. Thus began increasingly so since the 19th century, to secure to reduce the risk of flooding in some areas the shore with seawalls and channeling the river itself partly to allow the river bed could deepen. By further regulatory measures, such as the construction of weirs, flood protection has been further improved. 1945 blew up German soldiers among others, the Amper bridge west of the inning. This had the consequence that the feared by the population French troops of General de Gaulle in the western part of Lake Ammersee remained and therefore the more eastern regions were conquered by the American soldiers. At Whitsun flood of 1999 in spite of all measures, among other things, the weirs were partially damaged.
Nature and environmental protection
Since the mid 19th century, the natural course of bunting and the Amper is greatly changed by the flood and the construction of power plants - with far-reaching consequences for the native flora and fauna. The continuity of the flowing water is frequently disturbed, for example by weirs. Thus, the migration and proliferation of fish for upriver or downriver difficult or even impossible. The dikes in some areas meant an interference with the ecological balance. The riparian forests were shielded by the dikes from the natural flow of water, so that the floodplain is only present in residues. In order to obtain at least in some areas the original river landscape, several conservation areas have been designated. Thus, the mouth area of the bunting and the nature reserve Ampermoos are north of Lake Ammersee to the seven internationally significant wetlands of Bavaria ( See also: the Ramsar Convention ).
Fauna and Flora
The inventory of fauna and flora is directly related to the design of river landscape on which the person takes strong influence since the 19th century. The flow rate was greatly reduced by impoundments at numerous weirs, which brought a higher water temperature with it. Fish species that require oxygen-rich and cooler water as a habitat, were displaced by species from the Stillwater area. The reduced flow rate and the gravel banks are rarely shifted so that they grow. Bird species that need open gravel areas as breeding place here so no more living space.
Nature reserves and fish passes at weirs are partly improve the living conditions for many rare animals and plants. However, studies also show that the decline in the stock of grayling of bunting related to the rising population of Goosander. This classified as endangered dabbling duck which specializes in hunting for small fish. This example shows how difficult it is to recover an originally existing ecological balance, if this was once disturbed sustainable.
The river system of bunting and Amper can be divided into three flow regions:
- Trout region
- Grayling region
- Barbel region
Thus, the bunting is divided into a trout and grayling region. Especially in the oxygen-rich and cooler upper reaches of the river comes to the end of the Ammer Gorge southwest of Peissenberg primarily before the typical Leitfisch the trout region, the brown trout. The further course up to the confluence with the Ammer Lake Ammersee is called grayling region. The Amper is in contrast to the Ammer allocated over their entire course of the barbel region. Primarily, this is the habitat of brown trout, roach, pike or naturalized eels. In addition to the typical stock of fish are also found rare fish such as barbel and noses in these waters.
The river landscape provides many rare species habitat, including the Dippers, the kingfishers and the curlews. A special feature is the presence of black storks in the Ammer. The also be at risk Sandpiper build their nests well camouflaged amid the debris of gravel bars where they are not perceived by recreational use usually. There is a risk that the birds are disturbed massive and lasting, especially during the breeding season. Both come near the shore, but also on the gravel benches next toads and lizards also slow worms. The various species of snakes are represented by vipers and through the grass and smooth snake. Noteworthy is the large grass snake deposits in the nature reserve Amperauen south of Fürstenfeldbruck. In this section Amper at Schöngeising and the Zellhof as well as in the field below Dachau, mainly in Haimhausen, several populations have settled by beavers in recent years.
Especially in the higher, but partly also in the middle section of the river caused by erosion and sedimentation always new Flussaufschüttungen. These are still open gravel surfaces are first colonized by pioneer plants which cope well with the difficult conditions there; including the Alpine toadflax, the gelbblütige hawkweed and the rare German tamarisk. If the gravel is not eroded by flood again, even White Mountain Avens, juniper and finally various willow species settle in after a few years.
In the last remaining lowland forests are gray alder forests and along the lower reaches of the Amper also common bird cherry - alder-ash forests. Along the River Ammer, a number of bogs has developed, which are known for their colorful flower world, such as the Ettaler Weidmoos south of Oberammergau.
The Amper has no significance for the transport transport ( IWT ), as the river is not over its entire course is navigable.
From 1880 to 1939 ran between Stegen am Ammersee and Grafrath a regular steamship connection for the Munich recreation trippers. They traveled by train to Earl Rath, walked about 1.5 km from the train station to the pier. There they boarded the boat to lands where there was a possibility to upgrade to the Ammersee steamboats.
The boat service from Grafrath to Stegen had to be stopped after the opening of the railway line between Munich and Mr. Ching. The passenger decline and the high cost of Schiffbarhaltung of Amper section made the operation is no longer economical.
The beginning of the Second World War then brought the end for the shipping on the Amper.
The " Mooskuh " was the first steamship, which opened the new Amper shipping line between inning and Earl Rath on May 10, 1880. Officially, it went under the name " Maria Theresa ". Mooskuh it was popularly called, because of the horrible beep sounding call of the bittern was like, and because the entire distance between Earl Rath and the Ammersee led by the Ampermoos.
Earlier, the river to the Holztrift was used primarily from the Ammer Mountains. Then, for example, still have names like Trifthof for an industrial park in Weilheim. This Trifthof was built in 1611. In order to bring logs on over the Ammersee up to Dachau, the tree trunks were connected to drift rafts. In Dachau there was also a Trifthof.
Historical importance to two hydroelectric plants. So already in Schöngeising the first hydroelectric power station in Bavaria was 1891/92 built by Oskar von Miller. The first railway power plant in the world for single-phase, the power plant Kammerl was taken a few years later in 1898 west of Saulgrub in Ammertal in operation. It was used to supply the 23 km long, the local railway company shares belonging distance between Murnau and Oberammergau, which in 1905 the first scheduled electric trains resumed. A number of other smaller power stations along the river system have only regional economic importance. Hydropower plants require constant, high water level, so that the energy does not come to a standstill in low-rainfall months. This was ensured by the construction of several smaller channels, weirs and a dam at Fürstenfeldbruck. In Zolling Amper supplied by a canal, Zolling power plant with cooling water. At the same channel is also the hydroelectric plant Hague.
Besides a number watchable towns along the Ammer and Amper as Weilheim, Fürstenfeldbruck, Dachau and Moosburg is primarily the Ammersee of tourist importance. Along the River Ammer, among other things, the veil waterfalls south of Bayersoien and Echelsbacher bridge to the sights. Long stretches of river cycle path is lined, which allow a bicycle tour of the Alps to the Amper Estuary at Moosburg an der Isar. Driving on the bunting and the Amper river with canoes or similar manoeuvrable boats is possible but not allowed for almost the entire stretch of the year. During the bird breeding season until mid- July, the driving is illegal in many areas. The city Fürstenfeldbruck has identified a number of official bathing places along the Amper.
Cities on bunting and Amper