The Amsterdam Metro was inaugurated as the youngest metro in the Benelux countries on 14 October 1977. It is next to Amsterdam's tram and train services of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen part of the rail-based public transport in the Dutch capital Amsterdam and the immediate area. The metro network extends over a length of 42.5 kilometers, which runs only a 4 km long section of the tunnel. The Amsterdam Metro is a mixed operation of the three metro lines 50, 53 and 54 and the urban railway line 51 ( Dutch: sneltram ) dar. In 2009 took the Amsterdam Metro about 107.675 million passengers; this corresponds to an average of 295,000 passengers per day.
- 4.1 Series M1 to M3
- 4.2 series S1 and S2
- 4.3 Series M4/S3
- 4.4 Series M5
Already in 1922 there were plans for an underground city rapid transit system, but the then planned lines was too expensive at 50 million guilders. The city of Amsterdam fought in the postwar period with many urban expansion and the resulting increase in traffic. While it already had a well-developed tram network, which, however, did not come out of the city limits before the war. Finally, the municipal government proposed, as in many European cities was then the fashion to replace the tram through an underground metro network. This should connect the city center with the suburbs well. The proposed network should consist of four lines:
- A north - south line
- A Southwest Southeast line
- An east - west line
- And a ring line
Although the north-south line promised the highest volume of traffic, we first wanted to start with the south- south-east line. For this, it was planned, had the shortest deep stretch, and since you have had no experience, they decided on this route. However, since there were a lot of negative opinions and also errors in cost calculations, ultimately decided the national government in 1977 shortly before the opening that the Metroplan dropped and that there will be no further metro lines.
Finally, the full-fledged metro routes between Weesperplein and Gaasperplas or Holendrecht were opened on 16 October 1977. The tracks are from the lines 53 (also called Gaasperplaslijn ) and 54 (name Geinlijn ) traveled. Three years later, reached the two lines the station Centraal Station ( Central Station). In 1982, the line was extended 54 to Gein (hence the name line ).
The line 51 (also Amstelveenlijn ) was opened in 1990 and is actually an express tram ( sneltram called ), the distance from Centraal Station to Spaklerweg shared with the subway. Then it leads to shared tracks with the 50 ( Ringlijn ) and separates the station Zuid / WTC from this. The current is supplied at the stretch of South Station - Westwijk by an overhead line, while a side-mounted power rail is used for the other lines. Since the Amstelveenlijn is a tram, the bodies of vehicles used on her are narrower, and consequently there is on the sides attach boards to compensate for the difference in width. 2004, there was an extension in the south to the Westwijk station.
The Ringlijn ( line 50), opened on 1 June 1997 drives, completely above ground, mainly on viaducts. Typical dutch, uncommon in Germany, there are in the car on this line an extra bike racks. Actually, this should be a circle line, the expansion is uncertain.
The Amsterdam Metro network has 52 stations.
Line changes in tunnel renovation 2013
In the tunnel renovation in 2013 ( from 27 May to 17 November ), the Metro lines have been adjusted to reduce the rides in the tunnel:
The Amsterdam Metro has 106 vehicles, which are divided into three series:
Series M1 to M3
The series M1, M2 and M3 with the car numbers 1-44 are three part series ( 1-4, 5-37 and 38-44 ), built by the German manufacturer Linke- Hofmann -Busch ( LHB ) in Salzgitter 1973-1980 were. The units consist of two cars in stainless steel construction for a license of the American Budd Company. They are similar in construction and appearance of the very DT2/DT3-Typ Hamburg elevated railway, but are longer and wider. The two car bodies are each 18.36 meters long and 3 meters wide. The trains are powered by a side power rail with power, also for the workshop they have a small pantographs. It can be coupled to a maximum of four units together. There, however, can take up to three coupled units. The units 1-4 of 1973 were the original prototypes for the Amsterdam Metro and should be scrapped after the opening of the East Line. In 1980 it was decided to retain them and to procure similar vehicles. The orange - colored exterior doors are painted blue at the moment. It is planned that the units of class M1 to M3 from 2012 replaced by the new type of train M5.
Currently, trains of this type on the lines 53 and 54, and partially on line 50 in use.
Series S1 and S2
The Series S1 and S2 with the car numbers 45-69 were built in two part series ( 45-57 and 58-69 ) by La Brugeoise et Nivelles (BN ) in Brugge (Belgium) and delivered between 1990 and 1994. These rail cars have a length of about 30 meters and a width of 2.65 meters; they are used on the tram line 51. Is the change between the two current systems catenary and power rail at the station Zuid / WTC. Since the trains are only 2.65 meters wide, extra boards are unfolded in the "right" metro stations that fill the space of 35 centimeters. It can be coupled with each other a maximum of two units, since the platforms at the stations Buitenveldert and Amstelveen are only 65 feet long. Technically, can drive each other up to four units. For special occasions in the Amsterdam Arena trains run special trains on the line 54 A car has each a bicycle rack, with space on the two wheels. In the years 2004/2005 the original gray - blue - red color scheme to match the corporate design of the Amsterdam Gemeente Vervoer Bedrijf (GVB ) has been changed in the colors blue and white, as they have also the trams and buses in Amsterdam.
The series M4/S3 with the car numbers 70-106 was built by CAF in Madrid (Spain) and delivered in 1996/ 1997. The vehicles have a length of 30.8 meters and a width of 2.65 meters. The current consumption takes place through a side track. The railcar 70-73, which form part of the series S3, have a larger pantograph for use on the line 51, the railcar part series M4 just need a smaller pantograph for shunting. It can be coupled to a maximum of four units.
A striking feature of this type of car is particularly the small number of doors: only two per side instead of the usual three. In order to create more standing room, it was decided, instead of a double row of seats on one side to install folding benches. Also this series to be adapted to the corporate design of the GVB. All trains are now repainted.
The series M5 will replace the series M1 to M3, which soon 35 to 40 years are now in service. In addition, they are supposed to do on the line 51 as well as on the new north-south line (line 52) their service. In November 2005, the GVB announced the main features in the basic concept for the new type of train. The trains are a car body width of 3 meters obtained, as it is already in the types M1 -M3. The length of the train, however, is not yet known. You will get four doors per side. This is a door more than the cars of the types M1 to M3 and twice the number of doors the types M4/S3. The trains will be mostly with side benches at the respective ends of the train are individual cross sills complete the wagon. The trains are also adapted to the needs of wheelchair users, Bicycle open systems as in the trains of the series S1/S2 or M4/S3 should not give it. The trains will also be completely uninterrupted, the improved sense of security of the passengers and the better distribution of passengers.
The CCS is exactly as in the series are M1 to M3 in the middle of the cab. In addition, the cabin is to be fitted with air conditioning and have the ability to semi-automatic train operation. The cars are also for both current systems, ie power consumption, both from overhead wires as well as via busbar equipped. The trains were first introduced in September 2012 the press and tested in test drives. The trains were built by Alstom and designated as "Metropolis". In April 2013, five additional trains from Alstom, worth 42 million euros, was appointed. Previously, 23 trains had already been delivered.
Construction and planning
Currently find work for a fifth line with the future number 52 and the name of Noord- Zuidlijn ( North-South line) to a design by Benthem Crouwel Architekten instead. It runs from Station Zuid / WTC north over the railway station to station Buikslotermeerplein. We started the construction in 2002. Originally, the line should be ready in 2011 and cost 1.46 billion euros. Meanwhile, one assumes, however, that it goes into operation in 2017 at the earliest and will cost about 3.1 billion euros. It is expected that 200,000 passengers daily. When used for the construction of " caisson " technique, the work will be carried out partly in a pressure bubble. This makes it necessary for the workers to perform according to their layers a slow pressure equalization in a decompression chamber in order to avoid the so-called decompression sickness.
In June 2008, the foundations of four houses were damaged at the Vijzelgracht by the works on the north - south line. In September 2008, the then mayor Job Cohen ordered a complete construction freeze after six houses were sacked as a result of scour up to 20 inches and collapse threatened.