Amurru designated a historic small state in the north of Lebanon. The territory was on the Mediterranean between Byblos and Ugarit and handed to the north until the Mitanni kingdom zoom. The state was alternately independently, Hittite and Egyptian.
As early as the third millennium BC the Amorites occur in cuneiform documents as in Mesopotamia to invading semi-nomads. Amurru itself is first mentioned in the Amarna letters. At the time of Amenhotep III. was the area under Egyptian administration. The first known kings, Abdi- Ashirta and his son Aziru, operated an independent foreign policy, under Amenhotep III. was still proägyptisch. Under Amenhotep IV Aziru then concluded a treaty of alliance with the Hittites, who now turned against the Egyptian interests. After a campaign of Seti I. Amuru could be taken for a short time, together with Kadesh, before the country fell back to the Hittites. Ramses II also regained briefly in his first campaign in Asia Amuru of King Bentešina. After the battle of Kadesh to Amuru allied again with the Hittites. At the time of Ramses III. Amuru is defeated by the Egyptians. Is not entirely clear whether the state fought on the side of the Sea Peoples. Although it is from a collection of Sea Peoples in Amuru in the eighth year of Ramesses III. reported which may indicate struggles. On a relief in the mortuary temple of Ramses III. the " wretched prince of Amurru ," however, mapped together with other defeated enemies of Egypt. In Kanopusdekret Amurru is equated with Syria.
Economically Amurru was known mainly for the export of timber, beverages and balm.
List of known rulers
- Abdi- Ashirta (by around 1380 BC)
- Aziru (1340-1315 BC)
- Ari Teššup (1315-1313 BC)
- Duppi - Teššup (1313-1280 BC)
- Bentešina (1280-1275 BC government first phase)
- Šapili (1275-1260 BC)
- Bentešina (1260-1230 BC government second phase)
- Šaušgamuwa (1230-1210 BC)