Template: Infobox city in Turkey / Maintenance / county without inhabitants or surface
Ankara, formerly Angora ( ancient name of ancient Greek Ἄγκυρα Ancyra Ancyra in Latin ), is the capital of Turkey since 1923 and of the province of Ankara.
The city in 2012 had 4.63 million inhabitants, making it the second largest city after Istanbul the country.
Geography and climate
Ankara is located approximately 900 m to 1050 m above sea level and has a strictly dry continental climate, which is characterized by hot dry summers and cold snowy winters. The average annual temperature is 11.7 ° C. The warmest months are July and August with an average above 21 ° C, the coldest January and February with something below 0 ° C on average. Most rainfall occurs in May with an average of 56 millimeters, the lowest rainfall recorded for the months of July and August with 13 millimeters on average. The annual sum of precipitation is 417 mm; so that Ankara is one of the driest areas of Turkey.
Originally a thriving Phrygian settlement on the Persian king street, it was the center of the Celtic tribe of Galatians, the BC settled in Asia Minor about 230. 189 BC Ancyra was occupied by Gnaeus Manlius Vulso, but remained below regional domination. 25 BC it was the capital of the Roman province of Galatia. After it was successively conquered by Romans, Persians, Arabs, Seljuks and the Ottoman Empire ( 1361 ), it sank into insignificance.
On July 20, 1402 Timur suggested in Ankara, the Ottoman army under Bayezid I and captured this. Ankara became the capital of a sanjak in Eyalet Anadolu and 1841 was the administrative seat of the newly formed Eyalets the same name ( 1867 Ankara vilayet ). Since 1892, Ankara is connected by the Anatolian Railway with Istanbul.
On April 23, 1920, at the beginning of the Turkish liberation struggle against the occupying forces of the British, Greeks, French and Italians, here the new Parliament was opened. The old Ottoman Parliament was under pressure from the British occupation, and many of its members were imprisoned after its dissolution by the British and deported to Malta. When the Greek occupation forces until 1921 after Polatlı penetrated about 60 kilometers from Ankara, and thereby the building is still under Turkish nation state was threatened, there were considerations in Parliament, to Kayseri, about 300 kilometers southeast of Ankara, to move. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire Ankara was declared by an Act of 13 October 1923 by the Republicans and liberation fighters, led by Kemal Atatürk because of its location in Central Anatolia and in conscious demarcation from the Ottoman capital Istanbul prior to the proclamation of the Republic to the capital. On March 28, 1930, the capital was in place in the Latin script usual until then modern Greek form of the name Angora the official name of Ankara. This notation was in the Ottoman-Turkish since the 19th century in official use. Earlier forms of the name were Greek Ancyra, Arabic and Turkish Anḳira and Anḳuriyya Engüriye, Engürü and finally Ankara.
In 2009 the city was recognized for her outstanding efforts towards European integration with the European price.
Economy and infrastructure
Ankara is not only the administrative center of Turkey, but applies in addition to Istanbul and Izmir as one of the largest economic centers of the country. Of importance is the defense industry, such as the TUSAS Turkish Aerospace Industries, the ASELSAN (military technology) or the MKE ammunition and weapons industry, which Roketsan or Havelsan. Furthermore, there exist a large MAN bus factory near the airport, a tractor factory, a construction equipment manufacturer ( Hidromek ), as well as companies in the food and beverage industry, while the formerly significant goats and woolly processing has become meaningless. Industrial enterprises are concentrated mostly in the west of the city.
Ankara is home to several universities, including the University of Ankara, Bilkent University, Gazi University, Orta Dogu Teknik Üniversitesi ( ODTÜ ), Hacettepe University, TOBB University of Economics and high technology, Ufuk University, Atılım University, Çankaya University and the Baskent University.
The quality of the road varies. In the old center Ulus While it is bad, the roads around Kızılay, the new city center, renewed. The eight-lane beltway O -20 contributes to the relief of urban transport. As in other large cities, there are plenty of taxis.
The public transport system is largely handled by buses. There are several bus stations. The metro consists of three lines in early 2014 M1, M3 and Ankaray. . Two other lines (M2 and M4) are under construction and are scheduled to open in 2014, a line is in long-term planning. There is also a S -Bahn ( Banliyö Trenleri ).
Ankara has several military and an international civilian airport. Esenboğa Airport is located 28 km northeast of the city and was built between 2004 and renewed in late 2006 fundamentally. At the same time, the airport has a highway to the ring road has been connected.
Ankara has been connected by the Anatolian Railway end of the 19th century Istanbul and İzmir with a branch. Later distances over Kayseri in the east of the country, built to Baghdad railway direction Adana and Karabük to the Black Sea coast. The high-speed line Ankara - Istanbul in January 2009 was put into operation. The high-speed route to Konya has been in operation since August 30, 2011. High-speed lines to Sivas, Kars and Izmir are planned and will be completed by 2015.
The narrow, winding streets of the old winding around a steep, crowned by the citadel rock cones. South of the old and the old city center Ulus extends the modern new town with new centers Kızılay and Kavaklıdere, their markings are wide boulevards, numerous government buildings and embassies, modern residential neighborhood. In particular, in the western part of the city created new housing developments to meet the growing demand for living space. Despite these efforts, there are still many marginal settlements ( gecekondu ). The current structures Ankara was mainly due to the German urban planner Hermann Jansen, whose plans were implemented in the late 1920s.
In the last 15 years, the lignite has been largely replaced by more environmentally friendly natural gas as a heating medium. However, air pollution in Ankara takes because of the steady population growth too much, the old buses, cars and the lack of a more environmentally friendly alternative contribute significantly.
The Opera Sahnesi ( German: opera ) is the largest of the three opera houses in Ankara. It belongs to the Turkish State Theatres ( Devlet Tiyatroları ).
- Ankara Opera Sahnesi ( " opera ", also known as Büyük Tiyatro )
- Leyla Gencer Sahnesi
- Operetta Sahnesi
The following stages in Ankara belong to the Turkish State Theatres:
Further facilities in Ankara five classical orchestras:
- Presidential symphony orchestra
- Bilkent Symphony Orchestra
- Hacettepe Senfoni Orkestrası
- Orkestra Akademik Baskent
- Baskent Oda Orkestrası ( Chamber Orchestra of the Capital )
For the 2012/2013 season is playing a football club in the Süper Lig, the highest Turkish Series: Gençlerbirliği SK. The club plays in the athletics stadium Ankara 19 Mayıs, which offers 21,250 spectators. Behind the İstanbul clubs but clubs from Ankara are secondary and therefore internationally largely unknown. Other sports include skiing on the Elmadağ, the local mountain of Ankara, or ice skating at the ice rink. Furthermore, there is still with Türk Telekomspor a Basketballerstligisten.
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- The Roman ruins temple of Augustus and the thermal spa and the Julia column
- The Kocatepe Mosque ( Kocatepe Camii )
- The Hacıbayram Mosque
- The Anitkabir, the Mausoleum of Ataturk
- The Ata Tower
- The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations at the foot of the citadel
- The first republican parliament opposite the historic Hotel Ankara Palas in the Ulus district
- The central prison of the city since 2006 Ulucanlar is open to the public as a memorial. In the first court of the prison, there is a gibbet and a plaque with the names of 18 persons who were hanged there. Among them is Deniz Gezmiş, communist and co-founder of the People's Liberation Army of Turkey ( THKO ).
- The State Art and Sculpture Museum
- The Atatürk Orman Çiftliği
Sons and daughters:
Ankara was the birthplace of many prominent personalities. The best known include the singer Funda Arar, Nile Karaibrahimgil and Özcan Deniz, the writer André Couteaux and Renan Demirkan, the entrepreneur Vehbi Koç and the footballer Hasan Kabze and Ümit Özat.
Çankaya Palace ( 1935)
The Kocatepe Mosque ( 1989), the largest mosque in Ankara
Protests in Turkey in 2013
Dikmen Valley Park
Crowne Plaza Hotel
Ankara is home to the Turkish Angora, a cat breed that is considered the oldest longhaired breed in the world.