Annan Plan for Cyprus
As Annan Plan is referred to the United Nations plan for the reorganization of the situation in Cyprus, with the reunification of the two parts of the island to a state. Was largely driven by the then UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, the process according to the first approach in 1999, in the strict sense since 2002. The plan failed after two separate referendums due to the rejection by the South Island in 2004.
Annan in 1999 attempts to between the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus talks moving again. The opportunity seemed favorable, since 1999 decency a first EU decision on the accession of Cyprus. The plan was to make Cyprus a confederation of two very separate part of States. It was modeled on the Cantons of Switzerland. The general government should only the foreign, defense, economic and monetary policy and the regulation of citizenship are reserved. Annan was the fear of population shifts into account by the freedom of establishment as well as the freedom of ownership should be temporarily restricted. In addition, a high degree of demilitarization was provided. Great Britain, Greece and Turkey should remain protective forces of the country (see the London Treaty of Guarantee 1959).
The first plan ( Annan I) was presented in 2002, shortly before the EU would take a final decision on the accession of Cyprus. After the two Cypriot sides had presented their opinions, the Annan Plan II was released in December 2002. After further consultations followed in February 2003, the Annan Plan III. At 10-11. March was held a meeting with Annan's representatives of both communities. While the Greek side basically spoke for negotiations on this basis, rejected the Turkish side.
The plan was thus initially failed. Negotiations on the basis of the Annan III plan were again taken against the background of a pro-European sentiment in Northern Cyprus, a changing political situation in Turkey after the election victory of the AKP and the vote gains of the opposition in northern Cyprus in the elections of 2003.
Negotiations began on 10 February 2004 in New York and was later continued on Cyprus itself. No agreement could be reached, further negotiations were held in March in Switzerland with the assistance of Greece and Turkey. Annan put it in front of the Annan Plan IV. After the inclusion of further requests for changes were submitted to the end of March 2004, the final Annan V plan. Comprised the first plan for just over 100 pages, the final version had 6000 pages.
To implement the plan, the separate agreement of the two populations in referenda was provided. The vote of the Greek Cypriots on 24 April 2004 resulted in a rejection of 76%. In contrast, the Turkish Cypriots agreed with 65%. Thus, the Annan Plan was to be the only real opportunity to date to end the division of the island and to express the will of reconciliation failed.
Among the motives which led to the rejection of Greek Cypriot side was considered to be too low, the compensation of the displaced persons of 1974. Added to this was that for 25 years only 20% of displaced persons were allowed to return to their places of origin. In contrast, the displaced persons of Turkish Cypriots were granted the right to return. Addition, there was also criticism of the limited freedom of movement in the economic field and the permanent presence of the Turkish army units.
In July 2011, the Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan told not to conduct further negotiations with the EU during the Cypriot Presidency and previous concessions would no longer be valid. So you will not, as provided for in the Annan plan, assign Morfou to Cyprus.