Annual plant

Botanical definition

Annual plants, also called annuals plants are herbaceous plants that require a growing season of germination of the seed, through education of the whole plant, formation of the flower and fertilization to maturity of the new seed and die off after the ripening of the seed ( dry up or rot ). It may be limited by frost or drought, the vegetation period. Annual plants are therophytes, they do not form outlasting from (neither woody nor do they form rhizomes, tubers, bulbs, etc.).

Horticulture definition

As an Annual plant is referred to, in the strict sense, from a horticultural point, short-lived plants that bloom one summer long and die after seed formation. Thus, they differ significantly from the two-year and perennials. Typical Annuals are for example:

  • Nasturtium
  • Marigold
  • Nigella
  • Hemp

Also as an annual or horticulturally correct than Annuals drawn is referred to those plants that are perennial in their home country, in temperate latitudes because of the climate (frost ) does not survive the winter. These include, for example, the culture forms of Tagetes.

Annual or annuell the flowering behavior of plants that are still in the same culture period to flowering describes (examples: lettuce, all summer flowers). This means that when sowing or planting in the spring usually flowering and seed ripening in summer and autumn. With seed maturity exhausted and the plant dies.

Biennial or winter annual plants need a cold stimulus to come to bloom. They bloom usually in the spring and the seeds ripen in the summer. Examples of this are numerous vegetables such as leeks or cabbage; these plants die with seed maturity.

Annuals and Biennials Plants never become woody. Similarly, perennial plants need a cold stimulus to flower formation, but do not die after flowering. There are herbaceous perennial and woody perennial plants.

As Annuellenflur referred to a stock of (mostly ) annual plants.

Differences of annual and perennial plants

The lifetime of the plants to adapt to the shape or the hibernation temperature.

Annual plants ( annuals ) outlast the vegetation-free time ( during winter in cold climates, " Übersommerung " in the hot dry climate: Desert ) protected as a dormant embryo in the seed. You have no renewal organs ( tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, etc.). The plant body itself dies.

Perennial Plants ( also perennial, or Perenne ) have outlasting that can withstand the hostile environmental conditions (frost, drought ). With them so the plant body, or at least parts of it remains obtained ( see above).

The perennials include:

The trees (all trees and shrubs ), among them the self-renewing tissue ( cambium ) is protected by a layer of dead tissue ( cortex) and the renewal buds are about 50 cm above the ground.

Half and dwarf shrubs have buds renewing the range of 10 - 50 cm above the ground. They are protected by the insulating layer of snow in the winter, so an adjustment to snowy winters. Many alpine plants use this hibernation technology, such as the mountain avens ( Dryas ) or Spring Heath (Erica ). Often form highly branched, woody plants dense body with exterior green parts of plants ( rosette plants ).

Surface plants ( hemicryptophytes ) have their renewal buds directly to the earth's surface and are protected by the direct contact with the ground. They often form dense clumps to protect the buds. Typical examples are the winter crops, perennial grasses or shrubs with aboveground foothills ( eg forest strawberries). The above-ground parts of plants die off and thus protect the buds. This includes the biennial plants that form in the first year the plant body with storage substances. The storage substances nourish next year with the seed -forming plants parts. They therefore often have thickened roots or shoots. (eg, onion, carrots, dandelion)

Erdsprossende plants ( cryptophytes, geophytes ) wear their buds hidden under the earth, and thus well protected. Typical examples are the bulbous and tuberous plants ( tulip, crocus, etc.), but also the perennials that contribute to root foothills their overwintering buds.