Antipope Clement III
Clement III. (actually Guibert of Ravenna or Guibert of Ravenna, * 1020-1030 in Parma, † September 8, 1100 in Civita Castellana) was Antipope from the years 1080 to 1100 against Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II and Paschal II.
He was a great-grandson of the patriarch of the family " WIBERTI DI MELETOLO ", Gerhard, son of Mr. Siegfried I of Canossa.
At the instigation of the Empress Agnes, he was appointed as the successor Gunther of Bamberg chancellor for Italy. King Henry IV in 1072 raised him to the archbishopric of Ravenna. He received in 1073 by Pope Alexander II consecrated. Guibert joined because of his aversion to the policy of Pope Gregory VII its opponents and was suspended from his post in 1076. In the dispute between Gregory VII and Henry IV, he stood on the royal side, and was subsequently excommunicated and banished 1078.
The synod of Brixen elected him on June 25, 1080 to the anti-pope. The king went to Italy in 1081 and has gained access after more than two years of siege to the city of Rome. Guibert was on March 24, 1084 in the Lateran church at Rome as Clement III. enthroned and crowned on March 31, 1084 Henry IV emperor.
In May 1084 Norman prince Robert Guiscard came with his army to the beleaguered Pope Gregory VII, who had holed up in the Castel Sant'Angelo, for help. Clement III. fled to Tivoli. However, plundered and pillaged the Normans Rome, which led to the importance of their freed Pope Gregory VII had to leave with these Rome and the Romans his claims no longer recognized. So it was Clement III. 1084 possible to return to Rome.
At the Synod of Mainz in April 1085, the German episcopate recognized him under Archbishop Wezilo as lawful pope. 1089 he recanted at a synod at Rome the excommunication of Henry IV, disagreed with various alleged by the Gregorianern positions and called for the elimination of simony and the observance of celibacy. Clemens ' moral integrity was also recognized by his opponents. In 1096 the Normans him expelled from Rome.
Clement III. received his claim to the throne of Peter upright until his death in 1100. Then his followers Theodoricus chose as his successor.