Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu

Antoine- Laurent de Jussieu ( born April 12, 1748 in Lyon, † September 17, 1836 in Paris) was a French botanist. Its official botanical author abbreviation is " Juss. ". His main work is the Genera plantarum, published in 1789 in which he explained a natural plant system. His son Adrien de Jussieu was also a botanist and took over in 1826 the management of the Jardin des Plantes.

Life and work

Antoine- Laurent de Jussieu was a son of the pharmacist Christophe de Jussieu (1685-1758), the elder brother of Antoine, Bernard and Joseph de Jussieu. In 1665 he moved to Paris to continue his studies under the care of his uncle, Bernard de Jussieu at the Jardin du Roi. At the medical faculty of the University of Reims put Jussieu on April 14, 1769 November 29, 1769 two works which finally on December 1, 1769 the defense of Scripture to quinque partes medicinae medico necessariae under Henri -Jacques Macquart ( 1726-1768 ) resulted as a medical doctor in his statements. After returning to Paris chose Louis Guillaume Le Monnier him in 1770 as his deputy at the Department of Botany at the Jardin du Roi. At the same time continued his studies Jussieu at the medical faculty of the University of Paris continued. There he was first on November 22, 1770 Charles -Jacques -Louis Coquereau ( 1744-1796 ) a " thèse quodlibétaire " before, in which he compared animal and plant physiology with each other. On 30 January 1772 François Thiery and on March 10, 1772 Anne -Charles Lorry ( 1726-1783 ) defended Jussieu the necessary preparatory work for a doctorate, which he received on October 7, 1772.

Antoine- Laurent de Jussieu first botanical font from 1773 worked on a re-evaluation of the taxonomy of the buttercup family ( Ranunculaceae ). In it, he developed general ideas to a new plant systematics. In 1774 he described in an essay the new, applied in the Jardin du Roi, arrangement of the plants with the one used in 1758 by his uncle Bernard, in the garden of the Petit Trianon substantially. He also sat down in it deals with the taxonomic order above the rank of the plant family. In 1777 he succeeded his uncle, Bernard de Jussieu as Unterdemonstrator ( " sous- démonstrateur de l' extérieur des plantes ") at the Jardin du Roi. In the following years Jussieu examined the available in the Jardin du Roi and its herbarium plant material. He also used the data collected by Philibert Commerson in tropical plants, had access to parts of the collection of Joseph Banks and was in contact to James Edward Smith, who had acquired Linnaeus Herbarium. Result of these investigations was plantarum his 1789 published work generation. This Jussieu linked his descriptions of plant genera based on a variety korrelatierender features a natural plant systematics, which replaced the Linnaean system within a few decades. Among the most active proponents of the developed system of Jussieu were Robert Brown and Augustin- de Candolle Pyrame.

During the French Revolution was Antoine- Laurent de Jussieu 1790-1792 community representatives and administrators of hospitals and hospices. After 1793 saw the foundation of the Muséum national d' histoire naturelle, he was appointed to the Chair of Botany in 1800 and successor of Louis Jean -Marie Daubenton as director of the museum. From 1804 Jussieu was the successor of Bernard Peyrilhe ( 1737-1804 ) Professor of Materia Medica. By royal decree in 1823, he had to vacate for Jacques Clarion ( 1776-1844 ) this post. When he was offered again in 1830, the Chair, refused Jussieu and the professor went to Achille Richard.

Jussieu wrote a series of articles for the Dictionary from 1816 to 1830 published des sciences naturelles.

Memberships and Honors

On March 22, 1773 he was elected to the Académie des sciences, succeeding Michel Adanson as " Adjoint botaniste " to their member. On 22 December 1782, he moved again for Adanson as " Associé botaniste " gradually was after the reorganization of April 23, 1785 " Associé de la classe de botanique et agriculure ". On February 26, 1786 Jussieu was as a replacement for the late Jean- Étienne Guettard " Pensionnaire de la classe de botanique et agriculure ". 1790 Antoine- Laurent de Jussieu was deputy director and in 1791 director of the Académie des sciences. On 9 December 1795 he was " residant Membre " to the section " Botanique et physique vetegable " the first class of the Institut National des Sciences et Arts selected. From 1798 to 1799 Jussieu was president of that class during the first semester.

On December 27, 1820, he was elected an honorary member of the Académie Royale de Médecine. The Royal Society took him on 29 January 1829 as a foreign member. The asteroid 9470 was named Jussieu him and Bernard, Joseph and Adrien- Henri- Laurent de Jussieu in honor.

Writings (selection )

  • At generatio natura arcanum. Jeunhomme, Reims in 1769.
  • At casti Rarius aegrotant facilius curantur. Reims in 1769.
  • At quinque partes medicinae medico necessariae. Reims in 1769.
  • At oeconomiam animalum inter et vegetalem analogy? Quillau, Paris 1770.
  • At inveteratis alvi fluxibus simarouba. Quillau, Paris 1772.
  • Herbis to ferromagnetic promptior tutiorque abscessuum a congestione curatio. Quillau, Paris 1772.
  • At morbi epidemici frequentius saeviant in urbibus? in ruri? .
  • Examen de la famille the Renoncules. In: Histoire de l' Académie Royale des Sciences. Année in 1773. Paris 1777, pp. 214-240 (online).
  • Exposition d' un nouvel ordre de plantes adopte dans les demonstrations du jardin royal. In: Histoire de l' Académie Royale des Sciences. Année 1774th Paris 1777, pp. 175-197 (online).
  • Genera Plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. Paris 1789 (online).
  • Notice Historique sur le Museum d' Histoire Naturelle. In: Annales du Museum d' Histoire Naturelle. Paris 1802-1808: Part 1: Volume 1, 1802, pp. 1-14 (online).
  • Part 2: Volume 2, 1803, pp. 1-16 (online).
  • Part 3: Volume 3, 1804, pp. 1-17 (online).
  • Part 4: Volume 4, 1804, pp. 1-19 (online).
  • Part 5: Volume 6, 1805, pp. 1-20 (online).
  • Part 6: Volume 11, 1808, pp. 1-41 (online).
  • In: Annales du Museum d' Histoire Naturelle. Paris 1804-1813: Part 1: Volume 5, 1804, pp. 216-228 (online).
  • Part 2: Volume 5, 1804, pp. 246-265 (online).
  • Part 3: Volume 5, 1804, pp. 417-429 (online).
  • Part 4: Volume 6, 1805, pp. 307-324 (online).
  • Part 5: Volume 7, 1806, pp. 373-392 (online).
  • Part 6: Volume 8, 1806, pp. 170-186 (online).
  • Part 7: Volume 10, 1807, pp. 307-332 (online).
  • Part 8: Volume 12, 1808, pp. 285-303 (online).
  • Part 9: Volume 16, 1810, pp. 169-180 (online).
  • Part 10: Volume 18, 1811, pp. 472-487 (online).
  • Part 11: Volume 20, 1813, pp. 459-468 (online).
  • Part 12: Volume 2, 1815, pp. 436-443 (online).
  • Part 13: Volume 3, 1817, pp. 436-448 (online).
  • Part 13: Volume 5, 1819, pp. 226-248 (online).
  • Note: Volume 5, 1819, pp. 247 f (online).