An art school, part art university, is an artistic and artistic- scientific university, teach at the artist - professors and researchers from different disciplines and aspiring artists ( in the broadest sense: Artists, musicians, architects, directors, actors, designers, etc.) and art educators and art historians to study. In addition to universities for Fine or Fine Arts fall under the term music academies, schools of acting, film schools and universities special art disciplines such as media or dance. Architecture and Applied Arts ( arts and crafts, such as design / layout) is taught both in art schools as at engineering colleges / universities, literary and linguistic art forms (literature, rhetoric ) along normal liberal arts colleges.
The beginnings of art academies are located in Italy. It was here in 1563 with the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno in Florence, named Accademia, the first academy for painting in Europe. She was under the patronage of the Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo I de ' Medici. The educational model of the Academy as a royally sponsored art school was European imitation. The Popes taught in Rome in 1593, the Accademia di San Luca a, the French king moved in 1648 by the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, its successor institution, the Académie des Beaux -Arts, exists to this day.
The first art school or art academy in the kingdom was founded with the painter Academy in 1662 by engraver and publisher Jacob of Sandrart in Nuremberg. In the academies founded later in the 17th and 18th century by princely rulers artist should train as professors, students, thus the success of the schools contributed to the glory of their country. In most European cities residence created art academies under stately protection, so in 1696 in Berlin, 1725 in Vienna, 1735 in Stockholm and 1768 in London. Significant German Akadamien there were also at the princely seats in Dresden, Mannheim, Dusseldorf and Munich. In contrast to these academies, the resulting 1710 Augsburg Academy of Art was a municipal establishment, but in 1755 an imperial privilege and received through their art publications reached great charisma. The scholastic education and the rigid classical rules of the academies came off the end of the 18th century consisting of counter- movements that questioned the artistic freedom against the teaching. Groups such as the Nazarenes broke away from the official art doctrine and sought new ways. Throughout the 19th century draws the contrast of established painting, as it was taught at the art academies, to the great individualists and innovators. In France, for example, Delacroix, Courbet and the Impressionists for the development of art stand apart from state academies. However, at that time also designated private art schools as academies ( for example, the Académie Julian ). There predominantly learned those who did not meet the admission requirements of the state École des Beaux -Arts. With the liberalization of the teaching activities in the 20th century, the art academies have their role as guardians of a traditional view of art largely abandoned.
In the Anglo - American foreign art schools are usually integrated as schools in the regular university system, in Denmark, France or Italy, art colleges exist in parallel to higher education, as separate institutions, which are not under the Ministries of Culture of the Ministries of Science. They do not grant academic degrees, but separate diplomas. The former special status of art academies in relation to universities had been taken in some countries outside Europe. Many art schools now offer accompanying studies, and universities provide courses that meet the study at an art school. Thus, there are in Bangkok, Thailand, to study art at the formerly organized according to traditional faculties Chulalongkorn University as well as in a developed university art school, Silpakorn University.
In Germany, the art schools are assimilated to universities generally and have the right to award doctorates in artistic and scientific field. Art colleges in the scope of the Higher Education Act serve the advancement of art and science through teaching and research, especially in the realization of artistic development programs.
Art colleges form of artistic and scientific talent. Recording condition is a special artistic aptitude that demonstrated by submission of work samples and is found in an entrance examination. For pedagogical basis usually includes the assumption that students have to find their own creative work and artistic identity, because art is not taught, but rather artistic techniques, methods and research strategies.
The appointment of professors at the proposal of the teachers by the state ministries competent. With the appointment of professors as opposed to universities no PhD and Habilitation is required. Instead, there must be an outstanding artistic life's work, which manifests itself usually in the recognition in professional circles.
The departments are for subject specific requirements of teaching, either separately or interdisciplinary linked to each other. In certain fields, the study at individual lessons may be coupled to a small group or a particular class of a professor, in others the students are in the combination of course offerings for their own artistic work and in the organization of their studies freely.
At universities of Fine Arts there in addition to the Study Guide for freelance artists also accounts which should enable to artistic activity in media, design, fashion design and stage design. At some courses for restorers and art teachers also offered.
Admission is based on evidence of a special artistic talent as part of a recording process and high school times university entrance. In detectable outstanding artistic ability can be omitted for university entrance.
The study at art academies in Germany leads to different qualifications. Besides the usual graduate degrees in personal (eg Dipl.- Mus. - Ped -. Diploma music teacher ) or often impersonal (eg Dipl. Vis Comm -. Diploma in Visual Communication ) form or bachelor 's and master's degrees and doctorates exist depending according to content focus designations such as Graduate artists academy letter, master student, stage of maturity or concert stage.
The first art school was founded in 1692 as a private academy of Hofkammermalers Peter Strudel ( 1725 neubegründet as kk Hofakademie the painter, sculptor and architecture, today's Academy of Fine Arts). The first university music school is based on a foundation of the Vienna Musikverein in 1819, and in 1909 the State ( kk Academy of Music and Dramatic Art).
In Austria all previous art colleges use the designation University. There are six public universities of the arts, three with a focus on music / performing arts and visual three with a focus on art / arts and crafts, as well as some Academies of Arts and conservatories for music with university character.
- University of Music and Performing Arts Graz
- University of Art and Industrial Design Linz
- Mozarteum Salzburg
- University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
- University of Applied Arts Vienna
- Academy of Fine Arts Vienna
In a broader sense, the private university founded in 2004, the creative industry of arts and crafts ( industrial, graphic and interior design ) is an artistic institution.
In Switzerland, the art schools are assigned to the respective colleges.
The École nationale supérieure des beaux -arts de Paris has the status of a Grande Ecole. In France Faculties of Arts plastiques ( visual arts ) are parallel to the traditional art academy, the École des Beaux -Arts, as a result of the '68 movement emerged in the universities. The term of the Arts plastiques referring to the anthropological and sociological expanded concept of art and was directed consciously against the traditional concept of the fine arts.