Arunachal Pradesh (Hindi: अरुणाचल प्रदेश, Aruṇācal Prades [ ʌruɳɑ ː ː ɕ ʧʌl prʌde ] ) is an Indian state with an area of 83,743 km ² and 1.4 million inhabitants ( 2011 census ). The capital is Itanagar. It is disputed territory, the territory is claimed by China. The name Arunachal Pradesh comes from Sanskrit and means " land of mountains at dawn ." Often, the state is also referred to as the " Land of the Sunrise ".
- 2.1 demographics
- 2.2 languages
- 2.3 religions
Arunachal Pradesh extends for the most part on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas, which is often also called Assam Himalayas. It is a part of the mighty mountain range, which here is overall relatively low, but very rugged and equipped with its humid monsoon climate with a tropical evergreen rain and cloud forest vegetation. Only in the far west, in the district of Tawang, the typical landscapes of Tibet seem to whose government had managed in Lhasa those areas of Arunachal Pradesh to the end of the 1940s.
Arunachal Pradesh is bordered on the south by the states of Assam and Nagaland, and in the west to Bhutan, to the north by China ( Tibet) and to the east by Myanmar.
According to the Chinese Government, the disputed territory belongs to the circles Cona, Medog and Zayü in the districts of Shannan and Nyingchi of Tibet Autonomous Region.
(As of 2001 census )
According to the Indian census 2011 Arunachal Pradesh has 1,382,611 inhabitants. In terms of population, Arunachal Pradesh is the third smallest state of India. The population density is the lowest of all states with 17 inhabitants per square kilometers and is only a fraction of the national average ( 382 inhabitants per square kilometer). The urbanization rate is 22.7 percent lower than the all-India average.
The population of Arunachal Pradesh is ethnically mixed. The majority of the inhabitants of the state belongs to a number of indigenous peoples, which are usually referred to as " tribal peoples " ( tribals ) and pay particular rights which, according to the Constitution of India. According to the 2001 census, the tribal population ( scheduled tribes ) makes up 64.2 percent of the population of the state. A total of 100 different strains were counted in Arunachal Pradesh, of which 25 have more than 5,000 members. The largest tribes are the Nissi, Adi Gallong, Wancho, Dafla, Monpa, Tagin, Adi Minyong, Nocte, Adi, Apatani, Kalong, Mishmi, Nishang, Tangsa, Abor, Mishing ( Miri ), Khampti and Adi Padam. The remaining population consists of immigrants from other parts of India.
In Arunachal Pradesh there is an enormous linguistic diversity. The indigenous population speaks a variety of languages tibetobirmanischer whose names begin with those of the corresponding strains are usually identical. According to the 2001 census there in Arunachal Pradesh eight Tibeto-Burman languages whose speakers represent at least one percent of the total population, with none of them reached a proportion of substantially more than one-fifth. These are ( in order ) Nissi, Adi, Monpa, Wancho, Tangsa, Mishmi, Miri and Nocte. There are also numerous other small languages with limited distribution and low number of speakers who are often documented poorly. So the discovery of a hitherto unknown Tibeto-Burman language called Koro with 800 to 1,200 speakers were reported in 2008.
Under the non-indigenous population are the Indo-Aryan languages Bengali ( 9.4 percent), Nepali ( 9.2 percent ), distributed Hindi ( 7.9 percent ) and Assamese (5.0 percent). As the sole official language is English.
In religious terms Arunachal Pradesh is mixed. According to the 2001 census, 34.6 percent of the population Hindus, 18.7 percent are Christians, Buddhists 13.0 percent and 1.9 percent Muslim. 31.6 per cent fall on other religions (mainly animist beliefs ). A large part of the indigenous population practiced animism or is converted to Christianity. The Monpa and other tribes in the west Arunachal Pradesh are culturally close to the neighboring Tibetans and are Lamaist Buddhists. To the east of the state of the Theravada Buddhism is among the Khampti however, as in neighboring Burma common. Hinduism mainly depend nichtindigene the population in the cities, next to the trunks of the Nocte and Wancho practice an elementary form of Vaishnavism.
The majority of the peoples who inhabit Arunachal Pradesh were schriftlos up into the 20th century and have therefore provides no historical evidence. Only the Monba population in Tibetan dominated Tawang in northwestern Arunachal than a small principality written traditions.
Not later than the 17th century, in the time of the 5th Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, the region fell into the sphere of influence of the Tibetan Gelugpa school and was ruled from Lhasa. After the invasion of the British Younghusband expedition to Tibet, a military expedition to Lhasa, which led to the flight of the 13th Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso, the British and Tawang in the following areas of the Tibetans were to cede. This was the treaty of - enshrined Shimla Conference ( 1914), who wanted to commit the Himalayan main ridge ( McMahon Line ) to the border between Tibet and British India - not ratified by the Chinese side.
As a result, the British were formed from these areas, the so-called North East Frontier Agency ( NEFA ), a nation- state-like territory, the difficult conditions consistent mastery and the British colonialists not allowed and therefore more formal awarded the administrative district as a practical character.
After India's independence, the Indian government also took over the former claims of the British and tried to integrate the region into the new state. Since there is no consensus on the requirements of the PRC was achieved, the conflict widened in October and November 1962 from the Indian -Chinese border war. In the course of Chinese troops advanced to the Assam - level to the northern bank of the Brahmaputra, but retreated after a few weeks back in the original positions.
In 1972 the former NEFA of India the status of a Union Territory with the new name Arunachal Pradesh, which was converted in 1975 into a federal state. Since China has not abandoned its claims to the room, it considers this formal act as illegal. This special situation of Arunachal Pradesh is expressed, inter alia, also from the fact that in order to enter that state of Indian special permits are required - not only for foreigners but also for non-local Indians.
Acting Chief Minister since November 2011 nabam Tuki from the Indian National Congress.
Arunachal Pradesh is part of the Northeast India to promote their development, a special federal ministry was established.
The state of Arunachal Pradesh is divided into the following 16 districts (population and population density according to the 2011 census ):
- The sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in 1683 in the village of Tawang.