Principality of Asturias ( kast. ) Principality of Asturias
Asturias (Spanish Asturias and officially the Principality of Asturias, ie the Principality of Asturias, Asturian Asturies or Asturies Principáu d' ) is an autonomous community in northwest Spain. The territory of the Autonomous Community is the same as the province of Asturias (former province of Oviedo). The capital is Oviedo with 225 089 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2013 ).
- 6.1 industry
- 6.2 Agriculture
- 7.1 Football
- 8.1 Parliament
- 8.2 Government
Asturias extends between the Cantabrian Sea and the Cantabrian Mountains in the north to the south. Politically, it is bordered on the west by Galicia, on the south by Castile and León and to the east by Cantabria. The coast is called Costa Verde; Here are some of the best beaches in Spain.
Throughout the region there is an oceanic climate, which differs greatly from the hot and dry climate in central and southern Spain. The landscape of Asturias is therefore of much more green is determined ( España Verde, the " Green Spain "). The Cantabrian Mountains acts as a climatic divide the central Spanish plateau.
The population is concentrated in the valleys of the central part of the country and on the coast, with its urban centers Gijón and Avilés, while the middle and high mountain areas are sparsely populated.
In addition to the official language Asturian and Spanish also is spoken in the western border areas along the border with Galicia Galician in Asturias.
The biggest cities of Asturias, the port city of Gijón ( Asturian Xixón ) with 275 274 inhabitants, the capital, Oviedo ( Asturian Uvieu ) with 225 089 inhabitants and the industrial town of Avilés with 82 568 inhabitants.
The historical population development
In the region there are caves with stone age paintings, especially depictions of animals that are more than 15,000 years old. There about 700 dolmens were found. Most have survived the millennia not intact, even though they were covered by Mámoas.
The first permanent settlements are attributed to the Iberians. The region offered mineral resources, especially gold, have been established for the promotion of the so-called Castro culture mounded places. These were inhabited for a long time (> 1000 years) and be dug today.
Around 800 BC, the region was inhabited by Celtic tribes. This built fortified settlements such as the Castro de Coaña. They should have their livelihood denied, inter alia, as a shepherd.
Approx. 25-19 BC, the region was incorporated into the Roman Empire. But the Asturians were just like other native peoples rebellious, which can be considered as a reason for the relative late integration into the Roman dominion. After the decay of Asturias became part of the Western Goth in the 5th century. After the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Muslims ( 711-719 ) began of Asturias from the resistance of the Christians, whom the noble Pelayo ( Pelagius ) ( † 737 ) organized. He was elected by his followers to the king (or prince ) and is said to have conquered in 722 a force of the relevant geographical Muslim governor in the legendary Battle of Covadonga. This success is considered the starting point of the Reconquista.
From Pelayo sphere of the Kingdom of Asturias, the expanded south and 924 as part of the Kingdom of León was created. After eventful associations and inheritances of the northern Spanish kingdoms of Asturias in 1230 was permanently united with the Kingdom of Castile. The Spanish throne since 1388 bears the title " Prince of Asturias " ( Príncipe de Asturias).
In the 19th century, Asturias was together with Catalonia and the Basque country the center of the industrialization of Spain ( esp. mining and heavy industry ) (It was in Asturias coal, iron in the Basque Country and U.S. textile monopoly in Barcelona). It was also one of the regions of origin of the Spanish labor movement.
In October 1934 " revolución de octubre " ( October Revolution ) or " revolución mineral " ( miners revolution ) took place in the mining areas of Asturias Komunist the place, which was crushed by the troops of the then dominated by right-wing parties Government of the Republic. The management of the military action against the striking miners had the later dictator Franco, who should unleash a civil war two years later.
During the Spanish Civil War Asturias was a center of Republican resistance. However, it was geographically isolated from the main part of the Republican zone and could be captured in the summer of 1937 by Franco's troops.
Its current Statute of Autonomy was the region on 11 January 1982.
See pre-Romanesque monuments in Asturias list.
Asturias is divided administratively into 78 Concejos (English councils, cities and towns along the lines of Municipalities in the rest of Spain), (equivalent to approximately administrative districts or counties ) in accordance with the Statute of Autonomy to Comarcas can be grouped together, but this is not yet fully done. From the standpoint of the judiciary from the 78 seen Concejos are divided into 18 judicial districts.
See also: List of Comarcas and communities of Asturias
Asturias is one of the most industrialized regions of Spain, especially due to the prevailing mining and heavy industry. Since these industries are more likely to be shrinking, Asturias is located since the 1970s in a structural change. Over the past four decades, the economic growth rate of Asturias was back behind the other Spanish regions.
Agriculture plays a major role in Asturias, since agricultural products can be produced due to the humid climate and moderate temperatures that can only be grown with higher costs in other regions of Spain. There are also (mainly domestic ) tourism.
The gross domestic product of the region peaked in 2006, measured in purchasing power standards 94 % of the average of the European Union (EU -27).
The traditionally dominant industries of Asturias were coal and ore mining. Since the further exploitation of natural resources is associated with more effort and the extracted materials have become unprofitable due to cheaper competition from abroad is constantly increasing from the mining since the 1990s. Between Gijón and Avilés there is heavy industry, the companies are not least affected as a result of the declining mining of a closing wave.
The regional government is trying to avert the targeted settlement of modern business an economic crisis, whereby a decreasing number of jobs is not, however, stop them. Especially former miners have great difficulty in finding new work in the region. The media reports of a real unemployment rate of between 30% and 40%.
Asturias is the dairy capital of Spain; from the coast to the Picos de Europa mainly dairy cows are kept. An average dairy farm has 10 to 15 dairy cows, large farms are rare in the hilly and small-scale areas. Agriculture is primarily operated as maize for silage and winter feeding of the cows. Cereal cultivation hardly takes place, nor there are significant viticulture. A specialty of Asturias is the Sidra, an inexpensive cider.
In Asturias there are anywhere yet traditional square granaries, which are cereals, fruit and potato store on stilts to protect against rodents. Most granaries are built of wood. To the west of Asturias, there are also elongated memory of stone materials.
The forest consists today mostly of eucalyptus monocultures. The fast-growing and high-quality wood has the disadvantage that the forest soil is leached. Further, in the oil-rich eucalyptus wood, the risk of forest fires increases greatly.
The Sporting Gijón an Asturian club plays in the Segunda División, the second- highest division in Spanish football.
Since the entry into force of the Statute of Autonomy in 1983, eight elections to the regional parliament ( Junta General of the Principality of Asturias) took place. After the FAC minority government had found for the draft budget 2012 in parliament no majority, sparked Prime Minister Alvárez - Casco Parliament on 30 January 2012 and convened elections for 25 March 2012. This yielded the following results: PSOE 32% and 16 seats, FAC 25% and 13 seats, PP 22 % and 10 seats, IU 14% and 5 seats, UPyD 4 % and 1 seat ( preliminary official final result). It was only on 28 March 2012, the votes of expatriate voters were counted. Taking into account this result, it was found that the FAC would lose a seat to the PSOE. The FAC has filed appeals Verification action. Then ordered the Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Asturias (which approximately corresponds to a German Higher Administrative Court ) judgment of 27 April 2012, the repetition of the choice of the voter register registered in the constituency of West abroad at Spaniards. It also expressed that the sixth seat of the constituency remains vacant until the re-run election, which is why the new Parliament was constituted on 27 April 2012, being only 44 MPs. This judgment brought the PSOE, IU and affected by the loss of his mandate candidate of the PSOE election constitutional complaint with the Spanish Constitutional Court. The Constitutional Court upheld the complaint on May 11, 2012, and set aside the judgment of the Tribunal Superior de Justicia. It will therefore be no re-run election, the final distribution of seats is as follows: PSOE 17, FAC 12, PP 10, and 5 IU UPyD 1
The results so far are as follows:
IU, Izquierda Unida, is mainly the Komunist party. PAS was a nationalistic party FAC is the party a vorhiger leaders of the PP of Asturias, who was also minister in Aznar.
The elected by Parliament Prime Minister (Presidente del Principality of Asturias ) stands in front of the regional government ( Consejo de Gobierno ) and appoint its members. The governments since 1983 are as follows:
Isla de Deva
Naranjo de Bulnes
Beach at Ribadedeva
Rock Formation at Ribadedeva