Automotive industry

The automotive industry is an industry, the manufacture of automobiles and other motor vehicles dedicated to. The automobile industry originated after the invention of the automobile in 1885 by the German Carl Benz in the late 19th century and experienced a significant upswing by the mass production of motor vehicles ( particularly by Henry Ford and Ransom Eli Olds ), which continues today.

  • 4.1 Employees in the automotive industry
  • 4.2 auto industry in Germany
  • 4.3 auto industry in France
  • 4.4 auto industry in Italy
  • 4.5 auto industry in Japan
  • 4.6 auto industry in Austria
  • 4.7 auto industry in Poland 2009
  • 4.8 auto industry in Switzerland
  • 4.9 auto industry in Slovakia
  • 4:10 car industry in South Korea
  • 4:11 auto industry in the Czech Republic
  • 4:12 car industry in the U.S.


In many industrialized countries, as in the U.S., Japan, Germany and South Korea, the automotive industry one of the most important industries represents the development of production in the automotive industry was, however, meaning that, in the final assembly more and more prefabricated components ( or modules) are used.

2001 in the European Union ( EU-25), a turnover of 643.55 billion euros, of which Germany accounted for 264 525 000 000 Euro ( = 41.1 percent). In the automotive industry 2001, about 2.1684 million people were employed, including 863 201 ( = 39.8 percent) in Germany.

In recent times, the situation of many car manufacturers has become more difficult; they suffered declines in their sales figures and profits. Many market segments are saturated. High oil prices led many car owners, less than in the past to drive. During the world economic crisis of 2009/10 the governments of some countries were spending billions of dollars for a scrappage scheme to encourage the sale of new cars. In Germany this premium was called scrappage program.

Major companies

Hardly any other industrial mass products has the daily life of mankind changed more than the automobile. Since about 1900 there have been more than 2,500 companies that produce cars for the market. Many companies that produced iron or steel goods in the 19th century, began mid-century with the production of weapons or bicycles and thereby developed the necessary skills that were needed in the automotive industry decades later.

  • Alfa Romeo (Italy )
  • Audi ( Germany )
  • Autobianchi (Italy )
  • BMW ( Germany )
  • Brilliance (China)
  • Chery (China)
  • Chrysler (USA)
  • Dacia (Romania )
  • Daimler (Mercedes- Benz Cars, Germany )
  • FAW (China)
  • Ferrari ( Italy)
  • Fiat (Italy )
  • Ford (USA)
  • General Motors (USA)
  • GAZ (Russia)
  • Honda ( Japan)
  • Hyundai (South Korea)
  • Lada (Russia)
  • Lancia (Italy )
  • Maruti (India)
  • Maserati (Italy )
  • Mazda (Japan)
  • Mitsubishi ( Japan)
  • Nissan (Japan)
  • Opel ( Germany )
  • Porsche ( Germany )
  • PSA Peugeot Citroen (France)
  • Renault (France)
  • SAAB (Sweden - announced in late 2011 on insolvency )
  • Seat (Spain )
  • SAIC (China)
  • Škoda Auto (Czech Republic)
  • Subaru (Fuji Heavy Industries ) (Japan )
  • Suzuki ( Japan)
  • Tata (India)
  • Toyota ( Japan)
  • Volkswagen ( Germany )
  • Volvo (Sweden)

Even today, there are not only large listed here mass manufacturers also many small businesses in the automotive production, only a handful - producing vehicles, for example, the company Stutz ( USA) or Morgan ( GB) - mostly exclusive. See also a list of automotive brands. With the growth and the simultaneous decreasing intrinsic value share of producers also an important supplier industry has developed.

Statistics worldwide

The largest companies in the automotive industry in the world in 2008, based on sales

The 15 largest car manufacturer in the world in 2010, based on the sales

Automotive Brands by brand value in 2010

Vehicle registrations

In Western Europe, 2003 14.208.250 passenger cars were first approved for transport in the year. Worldwide, there were 56.3 million automobiles. While the demand for passenger cars were almost stagnant with only 1 % growth over 6% more commercial vehicles over 2002 sold. This growth takes place mostly in the developing and emerging countries from the so-called, with China as a pioneer in the growing market, where compared to the year 2002 35% more cars were put into circulation. In 2006, 16 million new cars were sold in the U.S., in China, there were 4 million and in India one million.

See details at: economy figures for the automotive

Statistics by country

Workers in the automotive industry

Car industry in Germany

The automotive industry is measured by sales, by far the most important branch of industry in Germany. In 2008, € 345.9 billion were generated. The next most profitable industry, mechanical engineering, brought it to € 225.5 billion. Around 747,000 people were employed in the automotive industry in 2009 in this country. The industry controls around 40 % for by far the largest share of the total research and development expenditures of the German economy. These were approximately € 22.1 billion in 2009. Your export surplus makes far more than half of the total export surplus of Germany.

Germany is China and the U.S., the third largest car producer in the world. In 2010, 5.55 million cars were produced. Characteristic at the local car production is its strong export orientation. While Japan, but especially China and the United States produce more for the domestic market, going by the German car production around 69 % abroad - the world's highest car export quota. According to the number of vehicles sold, therefore, change Japan and Germany for years as car exports from world champion. But when it comes to the value of car exports, Germany is so far ahead of Japan, especially because its large and high-priced vehicles are in demand abroad.

Automobile production, motor vehicle inventory and new registrations in Germany: See details under economic data to the automobile.

Automobile industry in France

Car industry in Italy

Car industry in Japan

The domestic automotive industry in Japan began when Fusazō Mori (森 房 造, Mori Fusazō ) in 1903, after he had seen at a trade U.S. automobiles, Torao Yamaba (山 羽 虎 夫, Yamaba Torao ) commissioned the construction of a bus. The result was the " Yamaba - Dampfbus " (山 羽 式 蒸気 バス, Yamaba - shiki Joki basu ) of 1904. The first gasoline-powered vehicle, in 1907 at the behest of Prince Takehito Arisugawa by Shintaro Yoshida (吉田 真 太郎Yoshida Shintaro ) and Komanosuke Uchida ( 内 山 ​​驹 之, Uchida Komanosuke ), who were inspired by the French Darracq. From this, according to the noise it made, Takurī (タクリー 号, Takurī - gō ) vehicle referred to were made ​​10 copies. 1923 or 1925 began Jun'ya Toyokawa (豊 川 顺 弥, Toyokawa Jun'ya ), the founder of the company hakuyosha (白杨 社), with the production of Ōtomo (オートモ 号, Ōtomo - gō ), which should be the first export vehicle in Japan.

*) Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.. is closely related to the Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. since 1967. and Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd.. connected

Automotive industry in Austria

Austria's auto industry can look back on a long tradition. In 1900, the front-wheel drive was invented by Graf & Stift, and the Steyr -Werke listed in the 1930s with the leading car manufacturers in Europe. Not least because of the Second World War and by negative developments have failed because all the Austrian manufacturer in the postwar decades, and consequently were acquired ( Steyr Daimler Puch AG, Graf & Stift, Puch, ...) or had to close.

Due to these closures and the decreasing importance within the economy as a whole, there were efforts by the then Chancellor Bruno Kreisky to build an Austro - Porsche, so again build a powerful car industry. This upturn started with the settlement of the engine plant in Vienna -Aspern by General Motors. Today still the auto industry in Austria plays a very important role. Soon saw more car, components were exported as finished vehicles imported. Because investing according to existing know-how and a high degree of innovation international auto companies, most notably BMW in Steyr in Graz or MAGNA, again and again in Austrian sites. There are now 3 car cluster ( AC Styria with 180 companies, including Slovenian, Croatian, and Hungarian companies 30,000 of the 44,000 employees in Austria are active; . AC Upper Austria, AC Vienna Region ) to promote cooperation between the car manufacturers and their suppliers. This is the efficiency and international competitiveness can be increased to support the domestic locations. After all, one has since the Eastern enlargement with Slovakia and its booming car industry around Bratislava, which is very close to the Austrian border, the competition just before the proverbial " own doorstep ".

Yet even in this time of globalization, outsourcing, and the economic slowdown in Europe could Austria suppliers - mostly medium-sized companies with high export share - sales and achieve sales growth. Therefore, the automotive sector is one of the few rapidly growing industries in Austria (average annual growth between 2000 and 2003 10% each ). The reason for this is of course not the population due to low domestic demand, but the good international competitiveness, as indicated by continued strong popularity with the German automakers, which the largest purchaser of Austrian Automotive ( BMW can develop a large portion of all required engines in Steyr and finished, and all types of diesel engines in the engine competence center Steyr develop ) represent. Important customers abroad are, inter alia, Daimler, BMW, VW and Audi. The automotive sector accounts for 38 billion euros around 10 % of the Austrian industry performance.

Automotive industry in Austria ( manufacturers and suppliers ) in figures ( 2003):

  • About 600 companies with about 175,000 employees
  • 2.1 million engines and transmissions
  • 200,000 cars (2004)
  • 25,000 trucks
  • 18,000 trailers and 8,500 tractors

The following vehicle manufacturers are represented in Austria:

  • BMW in Steyr
  • Fiat to have 4 locations with a total of 900 employees
  • General Motors / Saab in Vienna Donau City ( Aspern )
  • Magna in Graz
  • MAN in Vienna and Steyr - Liesing

In addition, several hundred mostly rapidly expanding ( mostly medium ) suppliers that sell not only represented in Austria vehicle manufacturers, but export mostly like. voestalpine in Linz motion, MIBA AG in Laakirchen, FACC ( Fischer Advanced Composites Components AG ) in Ried, Epcos Germany Berg, Eybl International AG, AVL List, Pankl.

Auto industry in Poland 2009

2009 was the automobile production in Poland by 9.2 % to 899 700 units. Of this total, 605 800 units to Fiat Auto Poland. The Fiat factory in Tychy near Bielsko -Biala contributed 67 % of the Polish car production. At Opel Gliwice, production fell by 45% from 171,700 (2008) back to 94,900 cars ( 2009). VW Poznan built with 138,200 units (2009 ) 22% fewer cars and vans as 2008. In FSO in Warsaw, production decreased by 60 %. Here in addition to the complete Chevrolet Aveo the Daewoo Matiz is prefabricated, which then goes to the final assembly in the Ukraine. Market shares of the automaker Fiat in Poland :: 67.3 %; VW 15.4%, 10.7% and Opel FSO 6.6%.

Auto industry in Switzerland

In Switzerland, there are a few manufacturers of buses, commercial vehicles and Solar-/Elektromobilen, the most popular Mowag ( military vehicles), Hess AG ( buses ) and Bucher Industries (local authority ).

Car industry in Slovakia

Since 1960's in it added a automobile industry in today's Slovakia. By foreign investors in Slovakia has grown in its first years of membership in the EU become a very major vehicle manufacturers, albeit not a single manufacturer has its corporate office in Slovakia, so you really can not denote a single type as a Slovak. If we calculate the vehicle production per inhabitant of the country, Slovakia is a world leader. The three major vehicle producer in Slovakia are Volkswagen in Bratislava, PSA Peugeot Citroen in Trnava and Kia in Zilina. Fraud in 2000, the number of units produced or 180,000, it grew by 2007 to 570,000 piece, again in 2008 for a large increase was assumed to 640,000.

Auto Industry in South Korea

Automotive industry in the Czech Republic

Car industry in the U.S.

Including Saab including Volvo, Land Rover, Jaguar and Aston Martin

Criticism from environmental groups

From environmental organizations automaker for particulate pollution, the destruction of valuable landscapes and for their contribution to climate change will be made ​​responsible. The share of road transport in the anthropogenic emission of CO2 is 11.5 %. The contribution that will help the car to particulate matter, caused by diesel soot, brake pad and tire wear, is 20-60 %, and the life expectancy in the EU falls by more than 8 months.

According to a World Bank estimate about 1.3 million people die each year in traffic accidents and about 50 million are injured, causing costs of 1-2% of gross domestic product.

Environmental groups continue to criticize, that the auto industry is promoted in spite of market saturation with public funds, namely the resettlement auto factories, the development of roads, a scrapping premium or the construction of parks, often on the grounds of job creation and competitiveness of a region.

Greenpeace presented in 2001 a criminal complaint against the auto industry because of the lung cancer risk from diesel fumes. 2006 sued a California attorney general six auto companies, because they are responsible for global warming with. The Volkswagen group landed in a study from 2009 to the third last place.

Numerous artists in their works thematize emotions or critical hazards around the car. In media art project warning quadrangle, a warning is required by the auto industry, which was to be mounted similar to cigarette packets in and on cars.