Avenue (landscape)

An avenue in the broad sense is one on either side of trees limited road or such a path.

In the narrow and original sense of the avenue is a tree-lined, extended into the countryside beyond architectural garden path axis of a stately castle. Under a half- Allee is defined as a special form of the avenue, where a row of trees is only on one side of the road or path.


The word comes from the French avenue and was naturalized during the Thirty Years' War in Germany, it comes from " all " that is, go down, and became " allée " which originally denoted a ( shady ) walkway in a formal garden. Only the expansion of the great aristocratic palace gardens in the countryside beyond and the creation of landscape gardens by axial tree-lined paths led to the current meaning of the word avenue. Although there were before the time of the Renaissance already different (often less regularly) planted, tree-lined roadsides, especially in rural areas, it was here but not the architecture, but the benefits of trees in the foreground.


Avenues offer many advantages. To protect them from sun or wind, and thus before the Humusabtrag in agriculture. They improve in fog and twilight orientation and facilitate the estimation of distances. The root system of avenue trees strengthens the roadways and protects against erosion and siltation ways also. In winter, the road can be seen on the roadside trees, the trees also protect against drifts. Roots and tree crowns also clean the groundwater, filter, especially particulate matter and other pollutants from the air. The dense trees in avenues is ultimately a natural sound insulation.

Often occur in alleys additional habitats, which in turn increase the biodiversity and in which also agricultural pests mainly by arboreal, insect-eating birds - can be combated in a natural way - but sometimes also by birds of prey.

The trees along boulevards are sometimes referred to as timber and often bear edible fruit, from which also must be the treader of grapes, linden flowers, acorns or leafy branches are fodder for the animals to the environment.

However, disadvantages may arise in avenue road. In a storm or snow breakage poses danger of falling branches or fallen trees. The risk of property damage, personal injury or fatal traffic accidents is increased. Due to the especially during the day often change quickly between bright sunlight and shadows in an alley, the view is often obstructed here in traffic.

Hardwood case, by increased traffic flow in deadlocked leaves on the asphalt and especially in sudden onset of rain in an extremely slippery road, similar to snow or icy roads cause, and therefore carries a high risk in road traffic. Falling fruit, as located on the ground fruits endanger the traffic when they collide at high speed against the windshield or bring bicycles to slide.

Napoleon Bonaparte had avenues throughout Europe invest in a big way - primarily to ensure sun protection for its marching soldiers.


In the 1960s, the ADAC resulted in the former West Germany a campaign against avenues: The collision of a car with an avenue tree ended too often deadly for the occupants; Human life takes precedence over aesthetics and conservation. Also in the new federal states were sacrificed primarily in Saxony highways avenue trees for the benefit of security and faster and dense road traffic. Brandenburg and Mecklenburg- Vorpommern could get most of their old tree stands on the streets. Later, the standards have changed: since the reunification of Germany and the ADAC is one of the associations working for the preservation of the grand old avenues in East Germany and the extension of the German Avenues.

Since 2008, an alliance calls from the Association for the Environment and Nature Conservation Germany ( BUND), the avenue Protective Association ( ASG), the Protection of German Forests (SDW ) and the Association German Avenues Route on October 20 the "Day of the avenue " and honors an "Avenue of the Year".


Typical street trees of historic castle avenues of Central Europe are Linden, depending on the landscape primarily winter -Linden (Tilia cordata) or leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos), and beech (Fagus sylvatica), often in their culture form the copper beech. In rural areas of Central Europe were next cider fruit avenues often oak avenues, mainly oaks ( Quercus robur ) planted. In urban space London plane (Platanus x acerifolia ), Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and increasingly the meat Red Horse Chestnut ( Aesculus × carnea) are popular. Fast-growing avenue trees are poplars, especially poplars (Populus nigra Italica '). In addition, mountain and pointed maple ( Acer pseudoplatanus and platanoides ) are commonly found in alleys. In general avenues are formed by a single tree species.

Word origin

In some German street names of the verbal component Allee appeared occasionally on without reference to a possible trees. In the English language, the avenue is not always equated with the German concept of an avenue. The French and the English name allée alley are nowadays seen as avenue of trees in a forest or city park. Originally served the allée as transitional or intermediate course (of frz: all = go ), (see " Rademachergang " in Hamburg, " Mårten Trotzigs Gränd " in Stockholm, " Moss Side Alley " in Manchester ) between blocks. The avenue comes from the French language and means in the true sense a wide motorable access road (from lat: advenire = approaching, cf fortified causeway in German ), then as an arrival road to a city gate (see " Lübeckertordamm " in Hamburg, " Avenue de la Porte de Montreuil " in Paris). By eliminating the city fortifications in the XVI. Century, the " French " Avenue was extended to the city inside and explained to a main road. This was connected either as a radial road to a roundabout or cross street to a boulevard and got the features of a tree-lined avenue. This new type of pervasive road system that directly connects the distant province of the country with the capital inside (see National roads in France) spread throughout Europe. In Germany, Hamburg is one of the few cities in which obtained a great diversity and distribution of type of road names to the present modern time and not renamed.

Famous avenues

  • German Avenues Route
  • Unter den Linden in Berlin
  • Alleenring in Frankfurt am Main
  • King Avenue in Dusseldorf
  • Prince Avenue in North Rhine -Westphalia
  • Festo Avenue of Schloss Bothmer in Klutz
  • Sun Allee in Berlin
  • Schmidt- Rottluff Avenue in Sierksdorf
  • Ganghoferstrasse Avenue in Welden
  • Avenue Church in Oberndorf
  • Hellbrunn Alley in Salzburg, arguably the world's oldest surviving (planned as a landscape garden ) Allee
  • Rifer Castle Avenue ( circa 1650 created by the Palace of Rif to Rehof and today - albeit reduced in size and changed - receive )
  • Neunkirchner Avenue between Wiener Neustadt and Neunkirchen (Lower Austria )
  • Avenue des Champs- Élysées in Paris
  • Schloßallee

More stock images from avenues

Blood Buchenallee in Glücksburg (Ostsee)

Partial view of the historic avenue of Festo Schloss Bothmer

Poplar Avenue in Kashmir, around 1864

Blossoming Chestnut Avenue near Gadebusch

Platanenallee at Kropelin

The Schmidt- Rottluff Avenue in Sierksdorf from Southwest

Cypress Avenue in Bolgheri ( Castagneto Carducci )