Ayacucho on the map of Peru
The city of Ayacucho ( in Quechua Ayakuchu, unofficially also Huamanga or Wamanqa called ), capital of the Peruvian region of Ayacucho, located around 570 kilometers from the capital Lima to the south of the South American Andean state and has 147,000 inhabitants ( 2005). It lies at an altitude of 2761 meters above sea level.
The city's name is attributed to the Quechua term for the dead angle ( / aya k'uchu / ), but this is not backed up.
The city was from the 5th to the 10th century capital of the empire of the Wari, who was an advanced civilization in the Andes, and a precursor of the Inca Empire. It was newly established on January 29, 1539 by Francisco Pizarro as San Juan de la Frontera de Huamanga.
1548, work began on the church of Santo Domingo, the first in a series of 33 churches from historical times, and has some other more modern in the city. Even today, the city in Peru is known as a city of 33 churches. Other churches are San Agustin, San Francisco, the Jesuit Church ( 1605 ), Santa Clara (1568) and Santa Teresa. The processions during Holy Week ( Semana Santa ) are among the most important of its kind in the world. Since July 20, 1609 Ayacucho is the seat of a Catholic bishop, Archdiocese since 1966. The territory of the Archdiocese of Ayacucho is divided into 24 parishes. Archbishop of Ayacucho is since June 13, 2001 Luis Abilio Sebastiani Aguirre.
1677 the University of San Cristóbal de Huamanga was established in Ayacucho. On 9 December 1824, the last Spanish troops were defeated in the South American colonies of the armed forces of Peru and Colombia under the leadership of Antonio José de Sucre in a battle near Ayacucho in the boonies of quinoa, whereupon the Viceroy José de la Serna 's surrender signed, resulting in the independence of most South American countries. In honor of this victory, the town was renamed in 1825 and given its present name.
During the 1980s and 1990s Ayacucho was one of the most affected by the terror of the Sendero Luminoso cities.