B'nai B'rith ( Hebrew בני ברית; German " Sons of the Covenant "), even B'nai B'rith or in German-speaking countries (up to the time of National Socialism ) Independent Order of B'nai B'rith ( UOBB ) or Bnei called Briss, is a Jewish organization, which was founded in 1843 in New York as a secret lodge of twelve Jewish immigrants from Germany and is dedicated to self-representation, according to the promotion of tolerance, humanity and welfare. Another goal of B'nai B'rith is the elucidation of Judaism and education within Judaism. Currently, there are approximately 500,000 members organized in about 60 countries. Thus, B'nai B'rith is one of the largest international Jewish organizations. The publication organ is the B'nai B'rith International Jewish Monthly.
History & Organisation
With grand lodge, main lodges and districts B'nai B'rith is similar to Freemasonry established, but does not understand itself as connected to this movement.
The headquarters is in Washington, DC, where the organization operates a museum of Jewish history ( the B'nai B'rith Klutznick National Jewish Museum ).
In 1897 opened the organization for women. Thus arose at this time also in the German Empire, the B'nai B'rith sister organizations, the demarcated to the relatively liberal Jewish Women's Federation. Since 1990, B'nai B'rith International takes women as full members. The self-organized, the B'nai B'rith affiliated women's organization called B'nai B'rith Women and still maintains its independent status.
The first branch in Germany was founded in 1882 in Berlin. The association headquarters was located in the Kleiststraße 10 in Berlin- Schöneberg. 1924 Rabbi Leo Baeck was elected Grand President of the German district, who then comprised more than one hundred individual lodges. His presidency lasting from 1925 until 1937. On April 20, 1938, all boxes had to be resolved. As the owner of the building Kleiststraße 10 functioned from 1938, the Gestapo. After the Second World War, the Order founded newly in the Federal Republic.
Offshoot of B'nai B'rith are, inter alia, the Anti-Defamation League was founded in 1913 and specialized in students Hillel Foundation.
Since March 1965 there is in Berlin a plaque at the Jewish community center in Pheasant Street. In the Passauerstraße 4 resides with the Janusz Korczak lodge a B'nai B'rith lodge.
Sigmund Freud was a member of the Viennese Masonic Lodge was founded in 1895 by B'nai B'rith, whose president has been for years the philosopher Wilhelm Jerusalem. In February 2004, the Parisian lodge was named after him in France.
Europe Award of Merit Medal of U.O.B.B.
- In early 1996, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl received by the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit Medal for humanitarian endeavors
- On 11 March 2008, Chancellor Angela Merkel received the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit Medal Medal for her commitment in the fight against anti-Semitism and racism
Publications of U.O.B.B.
- Desider star: works by writers of Jewish origin in German language. A Bio - Bibliography. Ed on the occasion of B'nai B'rith book exhibitions at the Academy of Arts in Berlin ( February 8 to February 22 1970) and the Munich City Museum ( 15 March-5 April 1970), B'nai B ' rith, Munich, 1970 ( 3rd edition )
- For the 50th anniversary of the Order of B'nai B'rith in Germany. U.O.B.B. With an introduction by Leo Baeck. Published by the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith. Kauffmann, Frankfurt am Main 1933 ( includes aa: Alfred Goldschmidt: The German district of the Order B'nai B'rith Arthur lion tribe:. . Sociology of Loge Paul Rosenfeld: Brother words)
- Maximilian Stein: Lectures and speeches. With a foreword by Leo Baeck. Published by the Grand Lodge of Germany VIII UOBB Kauffmann, Frankfurt am Main 1932 ( 3 added and increased edition)