Barbara was a daughter of King Casimir IV of Poland (1427-1492) from his marriage to Elizabeth of Habsburg (1437-1505), daughter of the Roman-German King Albrecht II Barbara's older sister Hedwig had in 1475 in the so-called Landshut Royal Wedding Duke George the rich of Bavaria -Landshut married.
Barbara married on November 21, 1496 in a glamorous and very costly committed ceremony in Leipzig Duke George of Saxony ( 1471-1539 ). At the wedding should have been present 6286 German and Polish nobles. As a brother in law equal to three Polish kings Georg was thus also a key figure in peace negotiations in eastern Germany and Poland - Lithuania. But also for the Jagiellonian was the marriage because of the rivalry with the Habsburgs to the Hungarian crown of importance.
Barbara founded with her husband in 1513 in Meissen Cathedral, several masses and liturgical celebrations of Easter, which have been performed annually since then. Letters written Barbara at their 1514 fighting in Friesland husband, are evidence of a happy and loving marriage. This also testifies to the number puzzle on coins during the period the declarer embossing Duke George, a small sign that consists of a seven and a Z- like written two, the intertwined. The screening means to be screened and the two letters of the alphabet of the second character. There are the initials of the name of George and Barbara. After the death of his wife, Georg is in mourning the beard have to grow, which it owes its nickname " the bearded one".
Barbara was buried in the cathedral of Meissen in 1521-1524 built by her husband 's funeral chapel. Barbara and George are the last Wettin royal couple, which was buried in the Meissen Cathedral. The altarpiece in the grave chapel was created by Lucas Cranach the Elder and represents the couple surrounded by apostles and saints dar.
From her marriage to George, Barbara had the following children:
- Christoph (* / † 1497 )
- Johann (1498-1537)
- Wolfgang (1499-1500)
- Anna (* / † 1500)
- Christoph (* / † 1501)
- Agnes (* / † 1503)
- Friedrich (1504-1539)
- Christine (1505-1549)
- Magdalene (1507-1534)
- Margaret (1508-1510)