Barnaul (Russian Барнаул ) is the capital of the Russian Altai region in the south of Western Siberia with 612 401 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010 ).
- 6.1 colleges
The city is located 200 km southeast of Novosibirsk and 280 km from the border with Kazakhstan. It lies on the western Siberian Ob River on the eastern edge of the main Barabasteppe in sandy area.
In Barnaul has a continental climate with very cold winters and warm summers.
The city of Barnaul is the administrative center and largest city of the Altai region, with the capital of Gorno- Altaisk gave about a third of its territory to the secession of the Republic of Altai.
Barnaul is one of the oldest cities of Western Siberia. It was founded in 1730 as a Cossack fort and is since 1771 the city. Until 1867 she was next to Yekaterinburg the second official mining town of Russia.
Since 1727 criminals and political prisoners were exiled to Siberia, after which the population rapidly increased and many cheap labor were available. For this reason, the industrial dynasty built Demidov ( Akinfi Demidov, 1678-1745 ) in 1730, a copper melt at the mouth of Barnaulka in the Ob, around which a town developed. The copper smelter was located near the river, which facilitated the transport of machinery and the removal of the copper. Moreover, it was the proximity to the forest, and therefore to fuel wood, ideal. The long transport routes from the copper mines to the further processing of copper melts were shortened considerably and reduce costs. Thus, the first industrial center of Siberia emerged.
Some years later, silver ores have been found in the Altai. A first melt and forge for silver was built in Barnaul. They existed from 1744 to 1893 during this period. Approximately 7.4 tons of silver were funded per year, the entire region promoted 90 % of the silver throughout Russia. On 1 May 1747 Empress Elizabeth Petrovna issued a decree for the expropriation of the industry Barnaul and took over the city as the center of the silver in state hands.
In 1753 saw the founding of a small mining school whose degree entitled to visit the higher mining school in Saint Petersburg. This pooling of training and work led to the further growth of Barnaul.
From 1771 Barnaul was the second official mining town of Russia, the privileges associated with it, such as the right to own money emission, strongly influenced the direction indicated by extensive industrial settlement development of the city. 1779 was a higher technical school for mining, as it existed in St. Petersburg, founded as a logical development.
The first meteorological observatory of Siberia was built in 1838 in Barnaul.
In subsequent years, the cross-border trade with Mongolia gained after 1902 completed expansion of Tschuisker tract as a navigable trade route over the crest of the Altai Mountains in Barnaul more and more importance and was an important trading branch. The connection to the railway network in 1915 was the opening to greater influence and commercial areas in Siberia for Barnaul. The Trans-Siberian Railway runs but 200 kilometers north in Novosibirsk.
1917 there was a major fire in Barnaul, which destroyed the city to a large extent. In the course of reconstruction Barnaul was re-designed according to the principle of the garden city, which today characterizes unmistakable character of the city.
In the context of Stalinist industrialization, the Trans-Siberian Railway was expanded with the commissioning Turksib 1934 on, which Barnaul gained its importance as a transportation hub for the region.
Note: 1897 from 1939 census data
Culture and sights
The cultural life in Barnaul is mainly used in theaters, of which there are five in Barnaul, and take in the local Philharmonic. The three museums of the city give the historical part of education in addition to the typical Russian cultural centers or centers, of which Barnaul can show 12, from.
In many Barnaul Russia German life. Therefore, a Russian - German House was built with German assistance in Barnaul, which functions as a cultural center. Furthermore, the Goethe -Institut operates in Barnaul a language learning center that offers German courses.
The Altai region is in the circles Halbstadt (Russian Galbschtadt ) and Slavgorod one of the important settlements of the Germans from Russia, whose history goes back to the procrastination German from all over Western Russia in the region around Barnaul on Stalin's orders, as to the settlement policy of Catherine the Great that at the time of her reign was recruiting people from Germany. There are now living 69,000 people of German ancestry ( as of 2004). For it was in 1991 " Autonomous District of the Germans" (Russian: Nemezki nazionalny rayon ) with the administrative center Halbstadt (Russian: Galbschtadt ) was established.
Also worth mentioning are the largest sports stadiums, swimming pools and especially the sports complex "if", to take place in the regular major sporting events.
In Barnaul employ more than 100 industrial plants around 120,000 people, bringing the city is the industrial center of the region. Here products such as diesel, tires, metal working machines ( furnaces, lathes, ... ), synthetic fibers, steam boilers, technical carbon, drills, ammunition, woolen clothing, furniture, shoes, diamonds, etc. are manufactured or processed further.
In the 30 libraries are currently more than 1,200,000 books, though Barnaul can not be counted among the training centers of the order of Novosibirsk. Nevertheless, Barnaul provides with more than 10 training institutions (universities, community colleges, etc.) with about 22,000 students quite the center for education in its region dar.
- State Agrarian University of the Altai region
- State Medical University of the Altai region
- Altai State Pedagogical Academy
- State Technical I. - I. - Polsunow University of the Altai region
- State University of the Altai region
- State Academy for Arts and Culture in the Altai region
- Academy of Economics and Law of the Altai
- Barnaul Law Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia
- Economic- legal Institute of Altai
- Branch of the All-Russian Distance Institute of Finance and Economics
- Branch of the Russian long-distance Institute of Textile and Light Industry
Agricultural University in Barnaul
National Academy of Arts and Culture of the Altai territory
In football, the city is represented by the Dynamo Barnaul.
- United States Flagstaff, United States
- Spain Zaragoza, Spain
- People's Republic of China Baicheng in Jilin, People's Republic of China
- China People's Republic of Changji in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China
- Öskemen Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan
Sons and daughters of the town
- Vera scarf from Burg (* 1912, † unknown), German agent
- Agybaj Smagulow ( born 1956 ), Kazakh diplomat
- Vladimir Shamanov (* 1957), Officer
- Konstantin Scherbakov ( born 1963 ), pianist
- Julia Neigel (born 1966 ), German singer, writer and producer
- Alexei Smertin ( b. 1975 ), football player
- Mikhail Yakubov (* 1982 ), ice hockey player
- Viktor Drugow ( born 1986 ), ice hockey player
- Ivan Vishnevsky (* 1988), ice hockey player
- Denis Kurepanow (* 1988), ice hockey player
- Alexei Cherepanov (1989-2008), ice hockey player, trained in Barnaul
- Andrei Kolesnikov (* 1989), ice hockey player
- Maxim Zimin (* 1994), race car driver